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The work which is commonly known as the Saxo!i 
or Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a chronological record of 
important events, chiefly relating to the English race, 
from the earliest period of the Christian era to the 
XII. century. It is of a composite character, and has 
been preserved to the present day in the form of six 
more or less complete ancient MSS., some of which appear 
to be independent of each other though traceable to 
some common original, whilst others are apparently more 
nearly related by obvious similarities. Four of these are 
in the British Museum, one in the Bodleian Library at 
Oxford, and another in the library of Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge. In addition to these, there is, in 
the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, a copy made in 
1563—4, by William Lambard, of a MS. which now exists 
only in the shape of three disfigured leaves. It is one of the 
Cottonian MSS. in the British Museum, some of which 
were damaged or destroyed by a fire in Little Dean's Yard, 
Westminster, in the year 1731. Before its destruction 
this MS. was printed by Abraham Wheloc in 1633-4; 
and it is evident that, as far as it goes, it is a copy 
of the Cambridge MS. These seven MSS., including the 


one which is represented by the Dublin copy and Wheloc'ff 
printed edition, have been distinguished as follows ; — 

Ending at 

1. At Cambridge .... 1070 A 

2. In the British Museum . . 977 B 

3. „ ;, „ . . . 1066 G 

4. „ „ , . . . 1079 D 

5. „ Bodleian Library (imperfect) 1154 E 
b. „ British Museum (imperfect) 1058 P 

. (The Dublin MS. copy ) ^ ^ ^qq^ ^ ^^^ ^y 

(Wheloc's printed copy 3 

MS. A (CCCG 173) is part of the bequest of Archbishop 
Parker (died 1575) to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 
and is now generally known as the Parker MS. It is 
written in many different hands, but as the entries down 
to 891 are all in one script, consistent with that date, it 
is not unreasonable to assume that this copy dates from 
the days of Alfred the Great, to whom the initiation 
of this national chronicle is without doubt to be ascribed. 
1 1 is also obvious from the entries that it was written 
at his royal city of Winchester, though it was at a later 
date supplemented by contemporary scribes at Canterbury. 
There are, moreover, many interpolations by later hands, 
and notes by Joscelin, Archbishop Parker's secretary. It 
i-5 generally regarded as the standard text. 

IMS. B, in the British Museum (Cott. Tib. A vi.) is all 

* In Mr. Charles Plummer's edition of " Two Sason Chronicles 
parallel" the text of G is indicated by the letter A as being a copy 
\jL the Cambridge MS., which he distinguishes by the symbol K. 
To his introduction to those parallel texts K and E (Clarendon 
Press, 18'J9) every student who requires an exhaustive description, 
audlysis and comparison of all the existing texts in referred. 


in one hand, and is supposed to have been copied about 
the year 1000, which is not remote from the year 977, at 
which it ends. The chronicle from which it was directly 
or indirectly copied was associated with the monastery 
of Abingdon. 

MS. C, in the British Museum (Cott. Tib. B i.), is also 
connected with the same monastery, and has been called 
the Abingdon Chronicle. It is written in several hands, 
but from the regularity of its pages it seems to have been 
transcribed as a whole. It has many annotations of the 
XVI. century. A peculiarity of both B and C, showing 
a close connexion, is that they interpolate bodily a number 
of annals (from 902 to 924) dealing mainly with the deeds 
of ^thelfled, a Lady of the Mercians, generally designated 
as the Mercian Register. 

MS. D, in the British Museum (Cott. Tib. B iv.) is 
written in several hands, and brings the chronicle down 
to 1079, but a considerable portion, comprising the years 
262 to 693, is missing. The lacuna has been filled by 
insertions made by Joscelin from monastic records in other 
versions of the Chronicle. The original MS., though by 
seven or eight different hands, was all compiled in the 
latter half of the XI. century, with the exception of one 
late entry of 1130.* It agrees mostly with MS. C. 

MS. E, in the Bodleian Library (Laud Misc. 636), was 
formerly in the possession of Archbishop Laud. It extends 
to the year 1154, though the last leaf is missing. The 
greater part of it, to 1121, is apparently in one hand, 
but the latest entries are probably contemporary with the 

* This date, in the LIS., is 1080. Mr. Plummer has pointed out 
that MLXXX. has been erroneously written for MCXXX. 

viii PPwEFACE. 

events described. Owing to the numerous entries relating 
to Peterborough, it evidently came into the possession of 
that monastery. Its pedigree, as traceable from the original 
chronicle, diverges more than any other from that of 
MS. A, with which it has therefore a considerable com- 
plementary importance, for which reason Messrs. Earle 
and Plummer made these two texts the groundwork of 
their editions. 

MS. F, in the British Museum (Cott. Dom. A viii.), 
extends to 1058, but is mutilated at the end. It is a 
compilation from other transcripts, and has little original 
value, its most remarkable feature being that it is 
bi-lingual, each entry being written in Latin as well as 

MS. G, the few remains of which are in the British 
Museum (Cott. Otho B xi), is now only known by the 
Dublin copy and by Wheloc's printed version. It is 
practically a copy of A. 

The minute and exhaustive investigation of the subject 
by Mr. Plummer, from whom some of these particulars 
are derived, has proved that the original chronicle estab- 
lished by Alfred the Great, or any direct copy of it, is 
no longer extant. MSS. A, B and C, which are practically 
identical to the year 892, doubtless represent its substance 
to that date, but it will be noticed by the student that 
in all of these, from the middle of the eighth century to 
the middle of the ninth, the events are misdated by two 
or three years. This has arisen from the fact that a date 
left blank in the original copy has occasionally been 
inadvertently filled by the transcriber with the next 
entry, and so caused a general ante-dating of the succeeding 


annals. Bufc the later portions of MSS. A, C, D and E 
may all be regarded as contemporary chronicles, and not 
open to suspicion on chronological grounds. A complete 
analytical edition in modern English, with corrected dates, 
is still, and must perhaps remain, a desideratum. 

The first printed edition of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 
was that by Abraham Wheelock, or Wheloc, Professor of 
Arabic in the University of Cambridge. His text was 
compiled from MS. G (not then destroyed), with additions 
from A, and was accompanied by a Latin translation. 

Forty -nine years later a more complete edition, with a 
Latin translation, was published by Edmund Gibson, of 
Queen's College, Oxford, afterwards Bishop of London. 

The first translation into modern English, based on 
Gibson's version, was made by Miss Anna Gurney, and 
privately printed at Norwich in 1819. It was a work 
of great ability, but its publication was prevented by the 
appearance in 1823 of a text and English translation by 
Dr. James Ingram, President of Trinity College, Oxford, 
who had the advantage of his predecessors in collating 
al! the extant MSS. 

The following translation by Dr. Giles appeared in 
1847. It was based on the materials prepared under the 
superintendence of Henry Petrie, formerly Keeper of the 
Records in the Tower. Dr. Giles also acknowledged his 
obligations to Miss Gurney 's translation, which he used 
to complete the chronicle, and to Dr. Ingram's account 
of the various MSS. Mr. Petrie's materials were, in 
the meantime, used in the compilation of the first 
volume of Monumenta Historica Britannica, which was 
published in 1848, and gives a composite text and 


translation as far as 1066. It was not carried further, as 
t'le projected continuation of the work was merged in the 
well-known series of records issued under the authority 
of the Master of the Rolls. In this series was afterwards 
(in 1861) included Mr. Thorpe's six-text edition with a 

A good translation, which was based on, and completed 
that given in Monumenta Historica Britannica, by the Rev. 
J. Stevenson, of Durham University, appeared in 1853. 

In an edition of the Chronicle there is no satisfactory 
compromise between a complete collation and what is 
called a conflation of the various texts. Mr. Plummer 
has, with the assistance of Mr. Thorpe's six-text edition, 
brought the former plan to as near perfection as 
possible, and thereby, with his remarkably discerning 
introduction and notes, earned the gratitude of all 
succeeding historians and workers in the same field. For 
the ordinary inquirer, a cheap and handy amalgamation 
of the texts such as that which follows may still, it is 
hoped, have its more commonplace uses. It appeared 
originally in the same volume as the translation of Bede's 
Ecclesiastical History ; but as this has now been superseded 
by Miss A. M. Sellar's version it has been found convenient 
to re-issue the Chronicle as an independent volume, and to 
introduce some improvements in its form, E. B. 





[The island f of Britain is eight hundred miles long and 
two hundred miles broad : and here in this island are five 
tongues ; English, British, Scottish, Pietish, and Latin. The 
first inhabitants of this land were Britt^ns ; they came from 
Armenia,! and first settled in the south of Britain. Then 
befell it that Picts came from the south from Scythia, with 
long sliips, not many, and first landed in North Hibernia, 
and there entreated the Scots that they might there abide. 
But they would not permit them, for tliey said that they 
could not all abide there together. And then the Scots said, 
' We may nevertheless give you counsel. V/e know another 
island eastward of this, where ye may dwell if ye will, and 
if any one withstand you, we will assist you, so that you may 
subdue it.' Then went the Picts and subdued tliis land 
northwards ; the southern part the Britons had, as we before 
have said. And the Picts obtained waves for themselves of 
the Scots, on this condition, that they should always choose 
tb^eir royal lineage on the woman's side ; which they have 
held ever since. And then befell it in the course of years 

* The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is apparently the work of many successive 
hands, and extends in different copies from the time of Csesar's invasion to 
the middle of the twelfth century. As it has been repeatedly prmted, it 
may suffice here to repeat, that, with the exception of the insertions placed 
within brackets, the text to the year 975 is mostly taken from the MS. 
designated by the letter A.; from that period to 1079 from MSS. A. C. D. 
E. F. and G., and from thence to the conclusion from MS. E. : and that such 
portions of the different MSS. us are concurrent with the text, but will not 
conveniently admit of collation, are given separately in a smaller type. 
These variations ■will sometimes convey the same information two or three 
times over : but it has been deemed advisable to retain all of them 
that the reader may hdve a more ample means of judging of tlie authority 
of this invaluable national record. 

f This dtscription of Britiiin is taken from Bede*s Ecclesiastical 
History. — L i c l ^ ^Umorica, g 


that some part of the Scots departed from Hibernia ^^itc 
Britain, and conquered some portion of the land. And theu 
leader was called Reoda ; from whom they are named 

Sixty years before Clrist was born, Gains Julius, emperor 
of the Romans, with eighty ships, sought Britain. There he 
was at first distressed by a fierce battle, and a large portion 
of his army was dispersed. And then he left his army to 
abide among the Scots,"]* and went south into Gaul, and there 
collected six hundred ships, with which he came again into 
Britain. And as they first rushed together, the emperor's 
* gerrefa 'J was slain : he was called Labienus. Then the 
Welsh took large and sharp stakes and drove them into the 
fording place of a certain river under water ; this river was 
called Thames. When the Romans discovered this, then 
would they not go over the ford. Then fled the Britons to 
the wood-wastes, and the emperor conquered very many of 
their chief cities after a great struggle, and depai-ted again 
into Gaul. 

Before the incarnation of Christ sixty years, Gains Julius the emperor, 
first of the Romans, sought the land of Britain; and he crushed the Btittjns 
in battle, and overcame them : and revertheless he was unable to gain any 
empire there. 

A.D. 1. Octavianus reigned fifty-six years; and in the 
forty-second year of his reign Christ was born. 

A. 2. The three astrologers came from the eastern parts 
in order that they might worship Christ. And the children 
were slain at Bethlehem, in persecution of Christ by 

A. 3. This year died Herod, having stabbed himself, and 
Archelaus his son succeeded to the government. And tlie 
child Christ was brought back again from Egypt. 

A, 4. 5. § 

* Dal signifies a division or part. — Cf. Bede 1. i. c. 1. 

f " This is an error, arising from the inaccurately written MSS. of 
Oroaius and Bede ; where in Hyhemia and in Hibemiam occur fcr in 
hiberua. The error is retained in Wheloc's Bede."— Lnqrvm. 

X "Tribune." — Ingram. 

§ These blank dates are found in the MSS. of the Saxon Chronicle, and 
are retained in this volume, for the sake of references which occur betweer 
the MSS. where the date happeiu to be blank, and othera in which facti 
ije asaigned to them. 


A. 6. From the beginning of the world to tliis year, fixe 
iliousand and two hundi'ed years were gone by. 

A. 7.— 10. 

A. n. This year Herod the son of Antipater obtaiue<2 
the government of Jndea. 

A. 12. Philip and Herod divided Lysia (between therui, 
and Judea they divided into tetrarchies. 

A. 12. This year Judea was divided into four tetrarchie». 

A. 13.— 15. 

A. 16. This year Tiberius succeeded to the empire. 

A. 17.-25. 

A. 26. This year Pilate began to rule over the Jews. 

A. 27.-29. 

A. 30. This year Christ was baptized ; and he converted 
Peter and Andrew, and James and John and Philip, and the 
twelve apostles. 

A. 31. 32. 

A. 33. This year Christ was crucified ; being from the 
beginning of the world about five thousand two hundred and 
twenty-six years. 

A. 34. This year St. Paul was converted, and St. Stephen 

A. 35. This year the blessed apostle Peter established a 
bishop's see in the city of Antioch. 

A. 36. 37. 

A. 38. This year Pilate slew himself with his OAvn hand. 

A. 39. This year Caius obtained the empire. 

A. 40. Matthew, in Judea, began to write his gospel. 

A. 41. — 44. 

A. 45. This year the blessed apostle Peter established a 
bishop's see in Rome. This year James, the brother of John, 
was slain by Herod. 

A. 46. This year Herod died ; he who slew James, one 
year before his own death. 

A. 46. This year the emperor Claudius came to Britain, and subdued 
a large part of the island ; and he also added the island of Orkney to the 
dominion of the Romans. 

A. 47. This year Claudius, second of the Roman kings, 
sought the land of Britain, and brought under his power the 
greater part of the island, and also subjected the Orkney 
Islands to the dominion of the Romans. This war he 

B 2 


effected in the fourth year of his reign : and in the same 
year was the great famine in Syria, which was foretold in 
the Acts of the Apostles through Agabus the f^rophet. Then 
Nero succeeded to the empire after ClaufUus : he nearly lost 
the island of Britain through his cowardice. Mark the 
Evangelist begins to write the gospel in Egypt. 

A. 47. This was in the fourth year of his reign, and in this same year 
was the great famine in Syria which Luke speaks of in the book called 
' Actus Apostolorum.' 

A. 47. This year Claudius, king of tke Romans, went with an army into 
Britain, and subdued the island, and subjected all the Picts and Welsh to 
the rule of the Romans. 

A. 48. In this year there was a very severe famine. 

A. 49. This year Nero began to reign. 

A. 50. This year Paul was sent in bonds to Rome, 

A. 5L— 61 

A. 62. This year James, the brother of our Lord, suffered 

A. 63. This year Mark the Evangelist died. 

A. 64.-68. 

A. 69. This year Peter and Paul suffered martyrdom. 

A, 69. Thi-i year Peter suffered on the cross, and Paul was slain 

A. 70. This year Vespasian obtained the empire. 

A. 71. This year Titus, the son of Vespasian, slew on^ 
hundred and eleven thousand Jews in Jerusalem. 

A. 72.— 80. 

A. 81. This year Titus succeeded to the empire, after 
Vespasian ; he who said that he had lost the day on which 
he had done no good. 

A. 82. 83. 

A. 84. This year Domitian, the brother of Titus, suc- 
ceeded to the empire. 

A. 84. This year John the Apostle wrote the book which is called 

A. 85. 86. 

A. 87. This year John the Evangelist wrote the boos of 
the Apocalypse in tl>e island of Patmos. 

A. 88.-99. 

A. 100. This* year Simon the apostle, the kinsman of 
Christ was crucified, and John the Evangelist rcflt^Q ir 
death on that day at Ephcsus. 


A. lOL Tills year pope Clement died. 

A. 102.— 109. 

A. 110. This year Ignatius tlie bishop suffered martyrdom 

A. 111.— 115. 

A. 116. This year Adrian the emperor began to reign. 

A. 117.— 136. 

A. 137. This year Antoninus began to reign. 

A. 138.-144. 

A. 145. This year Marcus Antoninus and Aurelius his 
brother succeeded to the empire. 

A. 146.— 166. 

A. 167. This year Eleutherius obtained the bishopric of 
Rome, and held it in great glory for twelve years.* To him 
Lucius, king of Britain, sent letters praying that he might be 
made a Christian : and he fulfilled that he requested. And 
they afterwards continued in the right faith till the reign of 

A. 167. This year Eleutherius succeeded to the popedom, and held it 
fifteen years ; and in the same year Lucius, king of the Britons, sent and 
begged baptism of him. And he soon sent it him ; and they continued iti 
the true faith until the time of Diocletian. 

A. 168.— 187. 

A. 188. This year Severus succeeded to the empire, and 
went with an army into Britain, and subdued a great part of 
the island by battle ; and then, for the protection of the 
Britons, he built a rampart of turf, and a broad wall thereon, 
from sea to sea. He reigned seventeen years, and then 
ended his days at York. His son Bassianus succeeded to the 
empire : another son of his was called Geta ; he died. 

A. 190.— 198. 

A. 199. In this year the Holy-rood f was found. 

A. 200. Two hundred years. 

A. 201.— 285. 

A. 286. This year St. Alban the martyr suffered. 

* According to Muratori, Eleutherius presided from A. 170 to A. 185. 

+ " Those writers who mention this grand discovery of the holy cross, by 
Helena the mother of Constantine, disagree so much hi their chronology, 
that it is a vain attempt to reconcile them to truth or to each other. This 
and the other notices of ecclesiastical matters, whether Latin or Saxon, 
from the yeax 190 to the yefir 380 of the Laud MS. and 381 of the 
printed Chronicle, may be safely considered as interpolations, probabl* 
poeterior to the Norman Conquest." — Ingram. 

r> THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. 287-4*3. 

A. 287.-299. 

A. 300. Three hundred years. 

A. 301.— 342. 

A. 343. This year S. Nicolas died. 

A. 344.-378. 

A. 379. This year Gratian succeeded to the empire. 

A. 380. 

A. 381. This year Maximus the emperor obtained the 
empire ; he was born in the land of Britain, and went thence 
into Gaul. And he there slew the emperor Gratian, and 
drove his brother, who was called Valentinian, out of the 
country. And Valentinian afterwards gathered an army and 
slew Maximus, and obtained the empire. In these days the 
heresy of Pelagius arose throughout the world. 

A. 382.— 408. 

A. 409. This year the Goths took the city of Rome by 
storm, and after this the Romans never ruled in Britain ; and 
this was about eleven hundred and ten years after it had been 
built. Altogether they ruled in Britain four hundred and 
seventy years since Caius Julius first sought the land. 

A. 410.— 417. 

A. 418. This year the Romans collected all the treasures 
that were in Britain, and some they hid in the earth, so that 
no one has since been able to find them ; and some they 
carried with them into Gaul. 

A. 419.— 422. 

A. 423. This year Theodosius the younger succeeded to 
tlie empire. 

A. 424. — 429. 

A. 430. This year Palladius * the bishop was sent to the 
Scots by pope Celestinus, that he might confirm their faitli. 

A. 430. This year Patrick was sent by pope Celestine to preach 
baptism to the Scots. 

A. 431.— 442. 

A. 443. This year the Britons sent over sea to Rome, and 
begged for help against the Picts ; but they had none, because 
they were themselves warring against Attila, king of the 

♦ " Pallad:\!s and Patricius have been sometimes confoimded together* 
<o that it is difficult to assign to each his respective share of merit in ihe 
Cou version oi the Scots of Ireland." — Lngr^m. 


Huns. And then they sent to the Angles, and entreated th? 
like of the ethelings of the Angles. 

A. 444. This year St. Martin died. 

A. 445. — 447. 

A. 448. This year John tlie Baptist revealed his head to 
two monks, who eame from the east to offer up tlieir prayers 
at Jerusalem, on the spot which was formerly Herod's 

A. 449. This year Martianus and Valentinus succeeded 
to the empire, and reigned seven years. And in their days 
Hengist and Horsa, invited by Vortigern king of the 
Britons, landed in Britain on the shore which is called 
Wippidsfleet ; at first in aid of the Britons, but afterwards 
they fought against them. King Vortigern gave them land 
in the south-east of this country, on condition that they 
should fight against the Picts. Then they fought against the 
Picts, and had the victory wheresoever they came. They 
then sent to the Angles ; desired a larger force to be sent, 
and caused them to be told the worthlessness of the Britons, 
and the excellencies of the land. Then they soon sent 
thither a larger force in aid of the others. At that time 
there came men from three tribes in Germany ; from the 
Old- Saxons, from the Angles, from the Jutes. From the 
Jutes came the Kentish-men and the Wip-htwarians, that is, 
the tribe which now dwells in Wight, and that race among 
the West- Saxons which is still called the race of Jutes. 
From the Old- Saxons came the men of Essex and Sussex 
and Wessex. From Anglia, which has ever since remained 
waste betwixt the Jutes and Saxons, came the men of East 
Anglia, Middle Anglia, Mercia, and all North-humbria. 
Their leaders were two brothers, Hengist and Horsa : they 
were the sons of Wihtgils ; Wihtgils son of Witta, Witta of 
Wecta, Wecta of Woden : from this Woden sprang all our 
royal families, and those of the South-humbrians also. 

A, 449. And in their days Vortigern invited the A nirles thither, and 
tliey came to Britain in three ceols, at the place caJled Wippidsfleet: 

A. 450.— 454. 

A. 455. This year Hengist and Horsa fought against king 
Vortigena at the place which is called jEgels-thre[>, 
( Aylesford,] and his brother Horsa was there slain, and aftei 
tlifit Hengist obtained the kingdoin and -/Esc his son. 


A. 456. This year Hengist and iE-c slew four troops of 
Batons with the edge of the sword, in the place which is 
naraed Creccanford, [Crayford].* 

Ac 457. This year Hengist and -^sc his son fought 
against the Britons at the place which is called Crecganford, 
fCrayford,] and there slew four thousand men ; and the 
Britons then forsook Kent, and in great terror fled to 

A. 458.-464. 

A. 465. This year Hengist and ^sc fought against the 
Welsh near Wippidsfleet, [Ebbsfleet?] and there slew twelve 
Welsh ealdormen, and one of their own thanes was slain 
there, whose name was Wipped. 

A. 466. — 472. 

A. 473. This year Hengist and ^sc fought against the 
Welsh, and took spoils innumerable ; and the Welsh fled 
from the Angles like fire. 

A. 474.-476. 

A. 477. This year ^EUa, and his three sons, Cymen, and 
Wlencing, and Cissa, came to the land of Britain with three 
ships, at a place which is named Cymenes-ora, and there 
slew many Welsh, and some they drove in fliglit into the 
wood that is named Andreds-lea. 

A. 478.— 481. 

A. 482. This year the blessed abbat Benedict, by the 
glory of his miracles, shone in this world, as the blessed 
Gregory relates in his book of Dialogues. 

A. 483. 484. 

A. 485. Tliis year iEUa fought against the Welsh near 
the bank of Mearcraedsburn. 

A. 486. 487. 

A. 488. This year JE,sg succeeded to the kingdom, and 
was king of the Kentish-men twenty-four years. 

A. 489. 490. 

A. 491. This year iEUa and Cissa besieged Andreds- 
cester, and slew ail that dwelt therein, so that not a single 
Briton was there left. 

* The positions usually a8sip:ned to various places mentioned in the 
f<* portion of the Chronicle, are often very uncertain, depending chiefly 
on a supposed or real similarity of names. Where these, however, appear 
sufficiently probable, they are placed between brackets if otherwiae? a 
^UAre IB added. 


A 492.-494. 

A. 495. This year two ealdormen came to Britain, C.M-dic 
and Cynric his son, with five ships, at the place whi':h is 
called Cerclics-ore, and the same day they fbught against the 

A. 496.-500. 

A. 501. This year Port, and his two sons Bieda and 
IMaBgla, came to Britain with two ships, at a place whicjli is 
called Portsmouth, and they soon effected a landing, and they 
there slew a young British man of high nobility. 

A. 502.— 507. 

A. 508. This year Cerdic and Cynric slew a British king, 
whose name was Natan-leod, and five thousand men w'th 
him. After that the country was named Natan-lea, as far 
Cerdicsford, [Cliarford.] 

A. 509. Tliis yearf St. Benedict the abhat, father of all 
monks, went to heaven. 

A. 510.— 513. 

A. 514. This year the West- Saxons came to Britain 
with three ships, at the place which is called Cerdic's-ore, 
and Stuf and Whitgar fought against the Britons, and put 
tliem to flight. 

A. 515.-518. 

A. 519. This year Cerdic and Cynric obtained the kin,sr- 
dom of the West- Saxons ; and the same year they fouglit 
against the Britons where it is now named Cerdicsford. 
And from that time forth the royal offspring of the West- 
Saxons reigned. 

A. 520.-526. 

A. 527. This year Cerdic and Cynric fought against the 
Bntons at the place which is called Cerdic's-lea. 

A. 528. 529. 

A. 530. This year Cerdic and Cynric conquered the 
island of Wight, and slew many men at Whit-garas-byrg, 
[Carisbrooke, in Wight.'' 

A 531.— 533. 

A. 534. Tliis year Cerdic, the first king of the V/est 
Saxons, died, and Cynric his son succeeded to the kingdoni, 

* Gibson here introduced into the text a long genealogy, which, as I)f 
Ingram observes : "is not justified by a single MS." 
f Benedict died, according to Mabillon, in 54'6 


and reigned from that time twenty-six jears ; and they gave 
the whole island of Wight to their two nephews, Stuf and 

A. 535.— 537. 

A. 538. This year, fourteen days before the Kalends of 
March, the sun was eclipsed from early morning till nine in 
the forenoon. 

A. 539. 

A. 540. This year the sun was eclipsed on the twelfth 
before the Kalen-ds of July, and the stars showed themselves 
full-nigh half an hour after nine in the forenoon. 

A. 541.— 543. 

A. 544. This year Wihtgar died, and they buried him in 
Wibt-gara-byrg. [Carisbrooke.] 

A. 545. 546. 

A. 547. This year Ida began to reign, from whom arose 
the royal race of North-humbria ; and he reigned twelve 
years, and built Bambrough, which was at iSirst enclosed by 
a hedge, and afterwards by a wall. Ida was the son of 
Eoppa, Eoppa of Esa, Esa of Ingwi, Ingwi of Angenwit, 
Angenwit of Aloe, Aloe ot Benoc, Benoc of Brond, Brond 
of Beldeg, Beldeg of Woden, Woden of Frithowald, Fritho- 
wald of Frithuwulf, Frithuwulf of Finn, Finn of Godwulf, 
Godwulf of Geat. 

A. 548.— 551. 

A. 552. This year Cynric fought against the Britons at 
the place which is called Searo-byrig [Old Sarum], and he 
put the Britons to flight. Cerdic was Cynric's father , 
Cerdic was the son of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, 
Gewis of Wig, W^ig of Freawin, Freawin of Frithogar, Fri- 
thogar of Brond, Brond of Beldeg, Beldeg of Woden. And 
Ethelbert, the son of Ermenric was born ; and in the thir- 
tieth year of his reign he received baptism, the first of the 
kings in Britain. 

A. 553. — 555. 

A. 556. This year Cynric and Ceawlin fought against the 
Britons at Berin-Byrig, [Banbury ?] 

A. 557.-559. 

A. 560. This year Ceawlin succeeded to the kingdom of 
the West-Saxons, and Ida being dead, Alia succeeded to the 
Idngdom of North-humbria, each of whom reigned tliirty 


years. Alia was the son of Iff, Iff of Usfrey, Usfrey of 
Wilgis, Wilgis of Westerfalcon, Westerfalcon of Seal'owl. 
Seafowl of Sebbald, Sebbald of Sigeat, Sigeat of Swadd, 
Swadd of Sygar, Sygar of Waddy, Waddy of Woden^ 
Woden of Frithuwulf. 

A. 561—564. 

A. 561). This year Ethelbert* succeeded to the kingdom 
of th3 Kentish-men, and held it fifty-three years. In hig 
days the holy pope Gregory sent us baptism, that was in the 
two and thirtieth year of his reign : and Columba, a mass- 
priest, came to the Picts, and converted them to the faitli of 
Christ : they are dwellers by the northern mountains. And 
their king gave liim the island which is called li [lona] : 
therein are five hides of land, as men say. There Columba 
built a monastery, and he was abbat there thirty-seven years, 
and there he died when he was seventy-two years old. His 
successors still have the place. The Southern Picts had 
been baptized long before: bishop Ninia, who had been in- 
structed at Rome, had preached baptism to them, whose 
church and his monastery is at Whitherne, consecrated in the 
name of St. Martin : there he resteth, with many holy men. 
Now in li there must ever be an abbat, and not a bishop ; 
and all the Scottish bishops ought to be subject to him, be- 
cause Columba was an abbat and not a bishop. 

A. 565. This year Columba the presbyter came from the Scots among 
the Britons, to instruct the Picts, and he built a monastery in the island of 

A. 566. 567. 

A. 568. This year Ceawlin, and Cutha, Ceawlin's brother, 
fought against Ethelbert, and drove him into Kent, and they 
killed two ealdormen at Wibban-dune [Wimbledon], f Oslaf 
and Cnebba. 

A. 569. 570. 

A. 571. This year Cuthulf fought against the Britons 
at Bedcanford [Bedford], and took four towns, Lygean-birg 
[Lenbury], and iEgeles-birg [Aylesbury], and Baenesington 
[Benson], and Egonesham [Eynsham] ; and the same year 
he died. Cutha was CeawHn's brother. 

• Bedu [ii. 5,] says Ethelbert died on February 23, a.d. 616, after a 
rei^Ti of fifty-six years. This would make it out that he succeeded to the 
thrane in a.d. 660. f Or Worplesdon, Surrey. 

12 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. 572-600. 

A. 572.-576. 

A. 577. This year CutliAvine and Ceawlin fought against 
the Britons, and they slew three kings, Comail, and Condi- 
dan, and P^arinmeail, at the place wliich is called Deorham 
[Derham ?], and took three cities from them, Gloucester 
and Cirencester, and Bath. 

A. 578.-582. 

A. 583. This year Mauricius succeeded to the empire of 
the Romans. 

A. 584. This year Ceawlin and Cutha fought against the 
Britons at the place whi<;h is called Fethan-lea, [Frethern ?] 
and there was Cutha slain ; and Ceawlin took many towns, 
and spoils innumerable ; and wrathful he thence returned to 
his own. 

A. 585.-587. 

A. 588. This year King ^lle died, and Ethelric reigr.ed 
after him five years. 

A. 589. 

590. At this period Ceol reigned five years. 

59 L Tins year in Britain was a great slaughter in battle 
at Woddesbeorg [Wemborow ?], and Ceawlin was expelled. 

A. 592. Tliis year Gregory succeeded to the popedom in 

A. 593. This year Ceawlin, and Cwichelm, and Crida, 
perished ; and Ethelfrith succeeded to the kingdom of the 
North-humbrians ; he was the son of JEthelric, Ethelric of 

A. 594. 595. 

A. 596. This year Pope Gregory sent Augustine to Britain, 
with a great many monks, who preached the word of God to 
the nation of the Angles. 

A. 597. This year Ceolwulf began to reign over the 
West- Saxons ; and he fought and contended incessantly 
against either the Angles, or the Welsh, or the Picts, or the 
Scots. He was the son of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric, Cynric 
of Cerdic, Cerdic of Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Esla of Gewis, 
Gewis of Wig, Wig of Frea\^'^ne, Freawine of Frithogar, 
Frithogar of Brond, Brond of Beldeg Beldeg of Woden. 
Tliis year Augustine and his companions came to the land 
of the Angles. 

A. 598.— €0a 


A. 601. This year Pope Grejrory sent a pall to Arch- 
bij^liop Augustine in Britain, and also a great many religioii.^ 
teaciiers to assist him, and amongst them was Paulinas the 
bishop, who afterwards converted Edwin, king of the North- 
humbrians, to baptism. 

A. 602. 

A. 603. This year there was a battle at Egesanstane.* 

A. 603. This year iEthan, king of the Scots, fought against the 
Dalreods and against Ethelfrith king of the North-humbrians, at 
Dsegsanstane [Dawston?], and they slew almost all his army. There 
Theodbjild, Ethelfrith's brother, was slain with all his band. Since then 
no king of the Scots has dared to lead an army against this nation. 
Hering, the son of Hussa, led the enemy thither. 

A. 604. This year the East-Saxons received the faith and 
oaptism under King Sebert and Bishop Mellitus. 

A. 604. This year Augustine consecrated two bishops, Mellitus and 
Justus. He sent Mellitus to preach baptism to the East-Saxons, whose 
king was called S'c I ejt son of Ricole, the sister of Ethelljcrt, and 
whom Ethelbert had there appointed king. And .Ethelbert gfive 
Mellitus a bishop's see in London, and to Justus he gave Rochester, which 
is twenty- four miles from Canterbury. 

A. 605. 

A. 606. This year Pope Gregory died, about ten years 
after he had sent us baptism ; his father was called Gordiini, 
and his mother Silvia. 

A. 607. This year Ceolwulf fought against the South- 
Saxons. And this year Ethelfrith led his army to Chester, 
and there slew numberless Welshmen : and so was fulfilled 
the prophecy of Augustine, wherein he saith, ' If the Welsh 
will not be at peace with us, they shall perish at the hands 
of the Saxons.' There also were slain two hundred priests, 
who came to pray for the army of the Welsh : their ealdor 
was called Scromail [Brocmaii], who with some fifty escaped 

A, 608.— 610. 

A. 611. This year Cynegife succeeded to the kingdom of 
the West- Saxons, and held it thirty-one years. Cynegils 
was the son of Ceol, Ceol of Cutha, Cutha of Cynric. 

A. 612. 613. 

A. 614. This year Cynegils and Cuichelm fought at 

• See Bede'8 Eccl. ilist. lib. I c. 34. 


Beandune* [Bampton ?"], and slew two thousand and sixty- 
live Welshmen. 

A. 615 

A. 616. This year Ethelb^rt, king of the Kentish-mer, 
died ; he was the first English king who received baptism., 
and he was the son of Eormenric ; he reigned fifty-si? 
years, and from the beginning of the world to this same 
year five thousand eight hundred years were gone by ; and 
after him Eadbald his son succeeded to the kingdom ; he for- 
sook his baptismal vow, and lived after the manner of the 
heathens, so that he had his father's widow to wife. Then 
Laurentius, who was archbishop of Kent, was minded that 
he would go southwards over the sea, and leave it entirely. 
But the apostle Peter came to him by night and scourged 
him sorely, because he wished thus to forsake the flock oi 
God, and commanded him to go to the king and preach the 
true faith to him ; and he did so, and the king was con- 
verted and was baptized. Li this king's days Laurentius 
who was archbishop of Kent after Augustine, died, and was 
buried beside Augustine on the 4th Non. Feb. After him 
Melhtus, who formerly had been bishop of London, suc- 
ceeded to the archbishopric : then the men of London, where 
Mellitus had been formerly, became heathens (again). And 
in about five years, during the reign of Eadbald, Mellitus 
departed to Christ. Then after him Justus succeeded to the 
archbishopric ; and he consecrated Romanus to Rochester, 
where formerly himself had been bishop. 

A. 616. In that time Laurentius was archbishop, and for the sorrow- 
fulness which he had on account of the king's unbelief he was minded to 
forsake this country entirely, and go over sea ; but St. Peter the apos- 
tle scourged him sorely one night, because he wished thus to forsake the 
flock of God, and commanded him to teach boldly the true faith to tlie 
king ; and he did so, and the king turned to the right (faith). In the days 
of this same king, Eadbald, this Laurentius died. The holy Augustine, 
while yet in sound health, ordained him bishop, in order that the commu- 
nity of Christ, which was yet new in England, should not after his decease 
be at any time without an archbishop. After him Mellitus, who had been 
previously bishop of London, succeeded to the archbishopric. And witli- 
in five years of the decease of Laurentius, while Eadbald still reigned, 
Mellitus depiuted to Christ. 

* This is more likely to be Bampton in Oxfordshire, than Bampton in 
Devonshire, which is by far too remote to admit the supposition that th« 
Ikouttie in queation waa fought there. 


A. 617. This year Ethelfrid king of tlie North-hum- 
brians was slain by Redwald king of the East-Angles, and 
Edwin the son of Alia succeeded to the kingdom, and 
subdued all Britain, the Kentish-men alone excepted. And he 
drove out the ethelings, sons of Ethelfrid ; that is to say, 
fii-st Eanfrid, Oswald, and Oswy, Oslac, Oswudu, Oslai', 
and Offa. 

A. 618. 

A. 619. This year archbishop Laurentius died. 

A. 620.— 623. 

A. 624. This year archbishop Mellitus died. 

A. 625. This year Paulinus was ordained bishop of the 
North-humbrians by archbishop Justus on the xn. Kalends 
of August. 

A. 625. This year archbishop Justus consecrated Paulinus bishop of 
tlie North-humbrians. 

A. 626. This year Eumer came from Cuichelm king ot 
the West- Saxons, thinking to stab king Edwin. But he 
stabbed Lilla his thane, and Forthhere, and wounded tlie 
king. And on the same night a daughter was born to Ed- 
win : she was called Eanfled. Then the king made a vow 
to Paulinus that he would give his daughter to God, if he 
would obtain of God that he might kill his foe who had sent 
the assassin. And he then went with an army against the 
West- Saxons, and there killed five kings, and slew a great 
number of the people. And at Pentecost Paulinus baptized 
his daughter with twelve others. And within a twelvemonth 
the king and all liis court were baptized at Easter ; that year 
Easter fell on the second before the Ides of April. This was 
done at York, where he first ordered a church to be built of 
wood, which was consecrated in the name of St. Peter. 
There the king gave Paulinus a bishop's see, and there he 
afterwards commanded a larger church to be built of stone. 
And this year Penda succeeded to th( kingdom [Mercia], and 
reigned thirty years ; and he was fifty years (old) when he suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom. Penda was the son of Pybba, Pybba cf 
Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba, Cnebba 
of Icel, Icel of Eomaer, Eomaer of Angeltheow, Angeltlieow 
sf Offa, Offa of Waermund, Waermund of Wihtlseg, Wihtlaeg 
of Woden. 

A 627. This year king Edwin was baptized with hia 


people by Paulinus at Easter. And this Paiilinus also 
preached baptism in Lindsey, where the first who believed 
was a certain great man called Blecca, with all liis followers. 
And in this time Honorias, who sent Paulinus his pall, 
succeeded to the popedom after Boniface. And archbislu^p 
Justus died on the fourtli before the Ides of November, and 
Honorius was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury by 
Paulinus at Lincoln. And to this Honorius the pope also 
sent a pall : and he sent a letter to the Scots, desiring that 
tliey should turn to the right Easter. 

A. 627. This year, at Easter, Paulinus baptized Edwin king of the 
Noith-humbrians, with his jjeople : and earlier within the same year, at 
Pentecost, he had baptized Eanfled daughter of the same king. 

A. 628. This year Cynegils and Cuichelm fought against 
Penda at Cirencester ; and then made a treaty. 

A. 629.— 631. 

A. 632. Tliis year Eorpwald was baptized. 

A. 633. This year king Edwin was slain by Cadwalla and 
Penda at Heathfield [Hatfield Chase ?] on the second before 
the Ides of October, and he reigned seventeen years ; and his 
son Osfrid was also slain with liim. And after that went 
Cadwalla and Penda and laid waste the whole country of the 
North-humbrians. When Paulinus saw that, he took 
Ethelberga, Edwin's widow, and departed in a ship to 
Kent. And Eadbald and Honorius received him very 
honourably, and gave him a bishop's see in Rochester ; and 
he dwelt there till his end. 

A. 634. Tliis year Osric, whom Paulinus had formerly 
baptized, succeeded to the kingdom of Deira ; he was the son of 
Elfric, Edwin's uncle. And Eanfrid the son of Ethelfrid 
Fiicceeded to Bernicia. And this year also bishop Birinus 
lirst preached baptism to the West-Saxons under king 
Cynegils. Birinus came thither by command of Honorius 
the pope, and he there was bishop until his life's end. And 
tliis year also Oswald succeeded to the kingdom of the 
North-humbrians, and he reigned nine years ; the ninth 
being numbered to him because of the heathenism which 
tliey practised who reigned over them the one year between 
Lini and Edwin. 

A. CZ5. This year king Cynegils was baptized by Birinus 


the bishop, at Dorchester, and Oswald king of tlie North 
hurabrians was his godfixther. 

A. 6:^6. This year king Cuichelm was baptized at 
Dorchest(?r, and the same year he died. And bishop 
Felix pn^ached the faith of Christ to the Epst- Angles. 

A. 637. 638 

A. 639. This year Birinus baptized king Cuthred at 
Dorchester, and received him as his (god) son. 

A. 640. This year Eadbald, king of the Kentish-men, 
died, and he reigned twenty-five years. He had two sons, 
l'>rme-nred and Earconbert, and Earconbert reigned there 
after his father. He overtlii^ew all idolatry in his kingdom, 
and was the first of the English kings who established the 
Easter-fast. His daughter was called Earcongota, a holy 
woman and a wondrous person, whose mother was Sexberfr:\, 
daughter of Anna, king of the East- Angles. And Ermeui-i^d 
begot two sons, who afterwards were martyred by Thunner. 

A. 641. 

A. 642. This year Oswald, king of the North-humbrians, 
was slain by Penda and the South-humbrians at Maserfeld 
on the Nones of August,* and his body was buried at Bardney. 
His sanctity and liis miracles were afterwards manifested in 
various ways beyond this island, and his hands are at 
Bambrough, uncorrupted. And the same year that Oswald 
was slain, Oswy his brother succeeded to the kingdom of 
the North-humbrians, and he reigned two less (than) thirty 

A. 643. This year Ken walk succeeded to the kingdom of 
the West- Saxons, and held it thirty-one years ; and Kenwalk 
commanded the old church at Winchester to be built in the 
name of St. Peter : and he was the son of Cynegils. 

A. 644. Tills year Paulinus died, on the sixth before the 
Ides of October ; f he was first archbishop of York, and after- 
wards at Rochester. He Avas bishop one less (than) twenty 
years, and two months and twenty-one days. And this year 
Oswin's uncle's son, J the son of Osric, succeeded to the 
kingdom of Deira, and reigned seven years. 

♦ The 5th of Aus^st. t The 10th of October. 

X This IS a})pareiUl}' corrupt, au<i should be read ' Oswm, the *Km (A 
Owic, Edwin's uncle's son.' See B«de, iii. I, and above An. 6S4, 


A. 645. This vear king Kenwalk was driven out of h'ls 

kingdom bj king Penda. 

A. 646. This year king Kenwalk was baptized. 

A. 647. 

A. 648. Tliis year Kenwalk gave Cuthred, his kinsman 
three thousand hides of land by Ashdown, [Aston ?] Cutln> d 
was the son of Cuichebii, Cuichelm of Cynegils. This year 
the minster was built at Winchester, which king Kenwalk 
caused to be made, and hallowed in the name of 8t. Peter. 

A. 649. 

A. 6.50. This year Agilbert, a native of Gaul, obtained 
the bishopric of the West- Saxons after Birinus the Romish 

A. 650. This year Birinus the bishop died, and Agilbert the French- 
man was ordained. 

A. 650. This year king Oswy ordered king Oswin to 
be slain, on the tliirteenth before the Kal. of September ; and 
about twelve days after this bishop Aidan died, on the 
second before the Kal. of September. 

A. 651. 

A. 652. This year Kenwalk fought at Bradford on the Avon. 

A. 653. This year the Middle-Saxons, under Peada the 
ealdorman, received the true faith. 

A. 654. This year king Anna was slain, and Botolph began 
to build a minster at Ycean-ho [Boston ?]. And this year 
arclibishop Honorius died, on the second before the Kalends 
of October. 

A. 655. This year king Oswy slew king Penda at 
Winwidfield, and tliirty men of royal race ^\^th him, and 
some of them were kings, among whom was Ethelhere, 
brother of Anna, king of the East Angles. And the 
Mercians became Christians. From the beginning of the 
world to this time five thousand eight hundred and fifty 
years were agone ; and Peada the son of Penda succeeded to 
the kingdom of the Mercians. 

*In his time he and Oswy the brother of king Oswald came 
together, and agreed that tliey would rear a monastery to the 
glory of Christ and the honour of St. Peter. And they did 
so, and named it * Medeshamstede' [Peterborough], because 

• This is the first of many Lite additions to the Chronicle concernin>j 
the monastery of Peterborough. They occur in only one of the MSS. 


there is a wliirpool at this place, which is called MeadswelL 
And they began the foundations and wrought thereon, and 
then committed it to a monk who was called Sexwulf. Ha 
was greatly God's friend, and all the country loved him, and 
he was very nobly born, and rich in a worldly sense ; but he 
is now much richer, being with Christ. And king Peada 
reigned no long time, for he was betrayed by his own wife 
at Kaster. 

This year Ithamar bishop of Rochester consecrated Deus- 
dedit to the see of Canterbury on the seventh before the Ka- 
lends of April. 

A. 656. 

A. 657. This year Peada died, and Wulfhere the son of 
Penda succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians. 

In liis time the abbacy of Medeshamstede, which his 
brother had begun, waxed very rich. The king favoured it 
much for the love of his brother Peada, and for the love of 
Oswy his brother by baptism, and for the love of abbat 
Sexwulf. And he said that he would dignify and honour it, 
and this by the counsel of Ethelred and Merwal his 
brothers, and Kyneburg and Kyneswith his sisters, and by 
the counsel of the archbishop, who was called Deus-dedit, 
and by the counsel of all his witan, both clergy and laity, 
who were in his kingdom ; and he did so. 

Then the king sent after the abbat that he should come to 
him with all speed ; and he did so. Then the king said to 
the abbat, ' Lo ! I have sent for thee, beloved Sexwulf, for the 
behoof of my soul, and I will plainly tell thee for why. My 
brother Peada and my dear friend Oswy began a monastery 
to the glory of Christ and St. Peter. But my brother, as it 
has pleased Christ, is departed this life, and lo I my prayer 
to thee is, beloved friend, that they work diligently on the 
work, and I will find thee gold and silver, land and 
possessions, and all that behoveth thereto.' Then the abbat 
went home and began to build ; and he so sped, by the grace 
of Christ, that in a few years the monastery was ready 
When the king heard that said, he was very glad : he bade 
send throughout the nation after all his thanes, after the 
archbishop, and after the bishops, and after his eai-ls, and 
after all who loved God, that they should come to him : and 
hfi set a day on which the monastery should be hallowed. 

c 2 


At tlie hallowing of the monastery king Wulfhere was 
present, and liis brother Etheh-ed, and liis sisters Kyneburg 
and Kyneswith. And Deus-dedit archbishop of Canterbury 
hallowed the monastery, and Ithamar bishop of Rochester, 
and the bishop of London, who was called Wini, and the 
bishop of the Mercians, who was called Jaruman, and bishop 
Tuda. And there was Wilfrid the priest, who was afterwards 
a bishop : and all his thanes who were witliin his kingdom 
were there. 

When the monastery had been hallowed in the name of 
St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Andrew, then the king stood up 
before all his thanes, and said with a clear voice, ' Thanked 
be the high Almighty God for the worthy deed which here 
is done, and I ^vill tliis day do honour to Christ and St. 
l^eter ; and I desire that ye all assent to my words : I, 
Wulfhere, do this day give to St. Peter and abbat Sexwulf, and 
the monks of the monastery, these lands, and these waters, 
and meres, and fens, and wears, and all the lands which lie 
thereabout, which are of my kingdom, freely, so that none 
but the abbat and the monks shall have a^y claim upon 
them. This is the grant. From Medeshamstede to North- 
borough, and thence to the place which is called Foleys, and 
thence all the fen straight to Esendic, and from Esendic to 
the place which is called Fethermouth, and thence along 
the straight way ten miles to Ugdike, and thence to 
Rag^vell, and from Ragwell five miles to the straight 
stream which goeth to Elm and to Wisbeach, and thence 
about three miles to Trokenholt, and from Trokenholt 
straight through all the fen to Derworth which is twenty 
miles long, and thence to Great Cross, and from Great Cross 
through a clear water called Bradney, and thence six miles 
to Paxlade, atid thence onward through all the meres and 
fens which lie toward Huntingdon-port, and these meres and 
lakes, Shelfermere and Wittleseymere, and all the others whieJi 
lie thereabout, with the land and the houses which are on the 
east-half of Shelfermere, and from thence all the fens to Medes- 
hamstede, and from Medeshamstede to Welmsford, and from 
Welmsibrd to Clive, and thence to Easton, and from Easton 
to Stamford, and from Stamford even as the water runneth 
to the aforesaid North-borougli.' These are the lands and the 
fens which the king gave to St. Peter's monastery. 


Then said the king, ' Tliis gi.'i is little ; but it is my will 

tliat they shall hold it so royally and so freely that neither 
geld nor tribute be taken from it, except for the monks alone. 
And thus free I will make this minster, that it be sul)ject to 
Rome alone ; and here it is my will that all of us who are 
unable to go to Rome shall visit St. Peter.' 

While he was saying these Avords, the abbat desired of 
liim that he would grant him what he should desire of him : 
and the king granted it. *I have here 'godefrihte'* monks 
who wish to spend their lives as anchorites, if they knew 
where. And there is an island here, which is called 
Anchorets-isle, and my desire is, that we might build a 
, minster there to the glory of St, Mary, so that those may 
dwell therein who wish to lead a life of peace and rest.' 

Then the king answered, and said thus : ' Behold, Sexwulf, 
lo ! not only that one which thou hast desired, but all things 
which I know thee to desire on our Lord's behalf, I thus 
approve and grant. And I beg of thee, my brother 
Ethelred, and my sisters Kyneburg and Kyneswith, that ye 
be witnesses for your souls' redemption, and that ye write it 
with your fingers. And I beg all those who come after me, 
be they my sons, be they my brothers, or kings that come 
after me, that our gift may stand, even as they would be 
partakers of the life eternal, and would escape everlasting 
torment. Whosoever shall take from this our gift, or the 
gifts of other good men, may the heavenly gateward take 
from him in the kingdom of heaven ; and whosoever will 
increase it, may the heavenly gateward increase (his state) in 
the kingdom of heaven.' 

These are the witnesses Avho were there, who subscribed 
i<- with their fingers on the cross of Christ, and assented to it 
with their tongues. King Wulfhere was the first who 
confirmed it by word, and afterwards subscribed it with his 
fingers on the cross of Christ ; and said thus : * I, king 
Wulfhere, with the kings, and earls, and dukes, and thanes, 
the witnesses of my gift, do confirm it before the archbishop 
Deus-dedit with the cross of Christ, t^^ 'And I, Oswy king 
jf the North-humbrians, the friend of this monastery and of 
abbat Sexwulf, approve of it with the cross of Chri'«Jt. »J^ * 

* This word is re: dered by Lye, " God-fearing," and by Ingram, siirpljr 


And I, k^ng Sighere, grant it with the cross of Christ. »J« 

* And I, king Sibbi, subscribe it with the cross of Christ. »J«' 

* A jd I, I']thehred, the knig's brother, grant it with the cross 
of Christ >J< * ' And we, the king's sisters, Kyneburg and 
Kyne»with, we approve it. ►J* ' * And I, Deus-dedit 
ari'hbishop of Canterbury, grant it. ^J* ' After that, all the 
others who were there assented to it with the cross of 
Christ.*^ They were by name Ithamar bishop of Rochester, 
and Wini bishop of London, and Jaruman who was bisliop 
of the Mercians, and bishop Tuda, and Wilfrid the priest, 
who was afterwards bishop, and Eappa the priest, whom king 
Wulf here sent to preach Christianity in the Isle of Wiglit, and 
abbat Sexwulf, and Immine the ealdorman, and Edbert the 
ealdorman, and Herefrid the ealdorman, and Wilbert the 
ealdorman, and Abon the ealdorman, Ethelbald, Brordan, 
Wilbert, Elmund, Frethegis. These, and many others 
who were there, servants of the king, all assented to it. 
This writing was written six hundred and sixty-four years 
after the birth of our Lord, (in) the seventh year of king 
Wulf here ; the ninth year of archbisliop Deus-dedit. They 
then laid the curse of God, and the curse of all saints, and 
of all Christian people (upon him) who should undo any 
thing which there was done. * So be it,' say all, ' Amen.' 

When these tilings were done, the king sent to Rome to 
Vitalian who then was pope, and desired that he should 
grant by his rescript, and with his blessing, all the before- 
mentioned things. And the pope sent this rescript, thus 
saying, ' I, pope Vitalian, concede to thee king Wulf here, 
and archbishop Deus-dedit, and abbat Sexwulf, all the things 
which ye desire, and I forbid tfcat any king or any man have 
any claim thereon, except the abbat alone ; nor let him obey 
any man except the pope of Rome, and the archbishop of 
Canterbury. If any one break this in any thing, may St. 
Peter exterminate him with his sword : if any one observe 
it, may St. Peter, with the keys of heaven, undo for him the 
kingdom of heaven.' Thus the monastery at Medeshamstede 
was begun, which since has been called Burh [Peterborough]. 

After that, another archbishop came to Canterbury, wlio 
was called Theodore, a very good and a wise mun, and he 
held his synod with his bishops and with tlie clergy. There 
was Winfred bishop of the Mercians deposed from his 


bishopric, aad abbat Saxulf was there chosen to be bi&hop, 
and Cuthbald, a monk of the same monastery, was chosen 
abbat. This synod was held six hundi'cd and seventy -three 
years after the birth of our Lord. 

A. 658. This year Kenwalk fought against the Welsh at 
Peonna [Pen] ; and he drove them as far as Pedrida, 
[Petherton ?] this was fought after he came from East- 
Anglia ; he was there three years in exile. Thither had 
Penda driven him. and deprived liim of his kingdom, because 
he had forsaken his sister. 

A. 659. 

A. 660. This year Bishop Agilbert departed from Ken- 
walk, and Wini held the bishopric* three years, and Agil- 
bert obtained the bishopric of Paris in France by the 

A. 661. This year, during Easter, Kenwalk fought at 
Pontesbury, and Wulfhere, the son of Penda, laid the coun- 
try waste as far as Ashdown. And Cuthred the son of 
Cuichelm and king Cenbertl died in one year. And 
Wulfhere the son of Penda laid waste Wight, and gave the 
people of Wight to Ethelwald king of the Sontli- Saxons, 
because Wulfhere had been his sponsor at baptism. And 
Eappa the mass-priest, by the command of Wilfrid and 
King Wulfhere, was the first of men who brought baptism to 
the people of the Isle of Wight. 

A. 662. 663. 

A. 664. This year the sim was eclipsed on the 5th before the 
Nones of May ; J and Earconbert king of tlie Kentish-men 
died, and Egbert his son succeeded to the kingdom ; and 
Colman,§ with his companions, went to his country. The 
same year there was a gre-at pestilence in the island of Bri- 
tain, and bishop Ij Tuda died of the pestilence, and was buried 
at Wagele.^ And Chad and Wilfrid were oraained ; and 
the same year archbishop Deus-dedit died. 

A. 665. 666. 

A. 667. This year Oswy and I gbert sent Wi rhard 

• Of Wessex, at Winchegter. 

t " Father of Caedwalla, king of Wessex. See A. t;85." — Petri^. 
X May 3. "This happened on the 1st of Mav ; but the error »« 
Bede's." — Petrie. 

I Bishop of Lindisfarne. H Of Lindiafarae. *J Cf. Bede 1. iii. c. 27. 


tlie priest to Rome, that he might there be conH< orated arch- 
bishop of Canterbury ; but he died soon after lie came 

A. 667. This year Wighard went to Rome, even as King Oswy and 
Egbert had sent him. 

A. 668. This year Theodore was ordained an archbishop, 
and sent to Britain. 

A. 669. This year king Egbert gave Reculver to Bas- 
the mass-priest, that he might build a minster thereon. 

A. 670. This year Oswy king of the North-humbrian. 
d\e(^^ on the loth before the Kalends of ^larch ;* and Egfri( 
Ilia son reigned after him ; and Hlothere,| the nephew oi 
bishop Agilbert, obtained the bishopric over the West- 
Saxons, and held it seven years. Bishop Theodore conse- 
crated him. And OsWy was the son of Ethelfrid, Ethelfrid 
of Ethelric, Ethelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa. 

A. 67 L This year was the great destruction among the 

A. 672. This year king Kenwalk died, and Sexburga his 
queen reigned one year after him. 

A. 673. This year Egbert, king of the Kentish-men 
died ; and the same year tliere was a Synod at Hertford, and 
Saint Etheldrida began the minster at Ely. 

A. 674. This year Escwin succeeded to the kingdom of 
the West- Saxons ; he was the son of Cenfus, Cenfus of 
Cenferth, Cenferth of Cuthgils, Cuthgils of Ceolwulf, Ceol- 
wulf of Cynric, Cynric of Cerdic. 

, A. 675. This year Wulfhere, the son of Penda, and 
Escwin, the son of Cenfus, fought at Beadan-head ; and 
the same year Wulfhere died, and Ethelred succeeded to 
the kingdom. 

Now in his time he sent bishop Wilfrid to Rome to the 
pope that then was, he was called Agatho, and sliowed him 
l)y letter and by message how his brothers Peada and Wulf 
here, and Sexwulf theabbat, had built a minster, which was 
called Medeshamstede, and that they luid freed it against 
king and against bishop of all services ; and he besought 
him that he would assent to it with his rescript and with his 
blessing. And then the pope sent his rescript to England, 
thus saying : 

• February 15th t Elouthenus, oisnop of WuLcheater. 


"I, Agatho, pope of Rome, greet well the worsliipful 
Ethelred, king of the Mercians, and the archbishop Theo- 
dore of Canterbury, and the bishop of the Mercians Sexwulf, 
who Avas foimerly abbat, and all the abbats who are in Eng- 
land, with the greeting of God and my blessing. I have 
heard the desire of king Ethelred, and of archbishop Theo- 
dore, and of bishop Sexwulf, and of abbat Cuthbald ; and 
it is my will that it be in all wise even as you liave spoken. 
And I ordain, on behalf of God and St. Peter, and of all 
saints, and of every person in orders, that neither king, nor 
bishop, nor earl, nor any man have any claim, nor any tribute, 
geld, or military service ; neither let any man exact any 
kind of service from the abbacy of Medeshamstede. I also 
ordain that the shire-bishop be not so bold that he perform 
any ordination or consecration within the abbacy unless the 
abbat beseech it of him, nor have any claim there for 
proxies, or synodals, or for any kind of thing. And it is my will 
that the abbat be holden as legate of Rome over all the 
island, and that wliatsoever abbat shall be there chosen by 
tlie monks, he be consecrated by the archbishop of Canter- 
bury. I will and concede that whatever man shall have 
made a vow to go to Rome, which he may be unable to fulfil, 
either from sickness or his Lord's need (of him), or from 
poverty, or be unable to come there from any other kind of 
need, be he of England, or of whatever other island he be, let 
him come to the minster at Medeshamstede, and have the same 
forgiveness of Christ and St. Peter, and of the abbat and 
of the monks, that he sliould have if he went to Rome. 
Now I beseech tliee, brother Theodore, that thou cause to 
be commanded throughout aD England, that a synod be 
gathered, and this decree, be read and observed. In like 
manner I command thee bishop Sexwulf, that even as thou 
didst desire that the minster be free, so I forbid thee and ah 
the bishops that shall come after thee, from Christ and all his 
saints, that ye have any claim upon the minster, except so 
far as ttie abbat shall be wilHng. Now will I say in a word, 
that whoso observeth this rescript and this decree, let him 
be ever dwelling with God Almighty in the kingdom of 
heaven ; and whoso breaketh through it, let him be excom- 
municated, and thrust down witli Judas and Wi^h all the 
devils in he'l unless he turn t: repentance. Aikicn I" 


This rescript Pop^ Agatho and one hundred and twenty- 
five bishops sent to England by Wilfrid archbishop of York. 
This was done six hundred and eighty years after tlie birth 
oi' our Lord, and in the sixth year of king Ethelred. 

The king then commanded the archbishop Theodore 
tliat he should appoint a meeting of all the witan at the 
place which is called Heathfield.* When they were there 
assembled, he caused the rescript to be read, which the pope 
liad sent thither, and they all assented to and fully con- 
firmed it. 

Then said the king : " All those things which my brother 
Peada, and my brother Wulf here, and my sisters Kyneburg 
and Kyneswith, gave and granted to St. Peter and the abbat, 
it is my will shall stand ; and I will in my day increase it 
for the good of their souls and of my own. Now to-day I 
give St. Peter at his minster, Medeshamstede, these lands 
and all that lieth there adjoining ; that is to say, Bredon, 
Replugs, Cadney, Swineshead, Hanbury, Lodeshall, Scuffan- 
hall, Cosford, Stratford, Wattleburn, Lushgard, Ethelhun- 
island, Bardney. These lands I give St. Peter all as freely 
as I myself possessed them, and so that none of my succes- 
sors take anything therefrom. If any one shall do so, let 
him have the curse of the pope of Rome, and the curse of 
all bishops, and of all those who are here witnesses, and this 
I confirm with Christ's token.kj^" "I, Theodore, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, am witness to this charter of Medes- 
hamstede, and I confirm it with my signature, and I excom- 
municate all those who shall break any part thereof, and I 
bless all those who shall observe It.hJ<" " I, Wilfrid, arch- 
bishop of York, I am witness to this charter, and I assent to 
the same curse.K^" " I, Sexwulf, who was first abbat and am 
now bishop, I give those my curse, and that of all my suc- 
cessors, who shall break through this." "I, Ostritha, wife 
of Ethelred, grant it." " I, Adrian, legate, assent to it.'* 
*' I, Putta, bishop of Rochester, 1 subscribe it." " I, Wald- 
here, bishop of London, confirm it." " 1, Cuthbald, abbat, 
assent to it. so that whoso shall break it, let him have the 
cursing of all bishops and of all Christian folk. Amen !" 

A. 676. This year, in which Hedda succeeded to his bishop- 
nc ;f Escwin died, and Kentwin succeeded to the kingdom 
• Bishop's Hatfield. + Of Wcssex, or Winci)e<ii«ef. 


ot' the West-Saxons : and Kentwin was the son of Cynegils, 
Cynegils of Ceolwulf. And Etheh-ed, king of the Mer- 
cians, laid waste Kent. 

A. 677. 

A. 678. This year the star (called) a comet appeared in 
August, and shone like a sunbeam every morning for tliree 
months ; and bishop Wilfrid was driven from his bishopric 
by King Egfrid ; and two bishops were consecrated in his 
stead ; Bosa to Deira. and Eata to Bernicia. And Eadlied 
was consecrated bishop over the men of Lindsey ; he was 
the first of the bishops of Lindsey. 

A. 679. Tliis year Elfwin was slain near the Trent, 
u'here Egfrid and Ethelred fought ; and Saint Ethel- 
drida died. And Coldingham was burned by fire from 

A. 680. This year archbishop Theodore appointed a 
synod at Heathfield, because he wished to set forth aright 
the Christian faith. And the same year Hilda, abbess of 
Whitby, died. 

A. 681. This year Tumbert was consecrated bishop of 
Hexham, and Trumwine of the Picts, * for at that time they 
were subject to this country. 

A. 682. Li this year Kentwin drove the Britons to the 

A. 683. 

A. 684. Here in this year Egfrid sent an army against 
the Scots, and Beort his ealdorman with it, and miserably 
they plundered and burned the churches of God. 

A. 685. This year king Egfrid commanded that Cuth- 
bert should be consecrated a bishop ; and on the first day of 
Easter, at York, archbishop Theodore consecrated him 
bishop of Hexham ; because Tumbert had been deposed 
from his bishopric. This year Casdwalla began to contend for 
the kingdom. Credwalla was the son of Cenbert, Cenbert 
of Cadda, Cadda of Cutha, Cutha of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cyn- 
ric, Cynric of Cerdic. And M ul was the brother of Ccedwalla, 
and he was afterwards burned in Kent. And the same year, 
on the 13th before the Kalends of June, king Egfrid was 
glain near the North-sea, and a great army with him He 
was king fifteen years, and Alfrid his brotlier succeeded to 

* Whithem. 

28 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 685-690. 

the kingdom after him. Egfrid was the son of Oswy, 
Oswj of Ethelfrid, Ethelfrid of EtheMc, Ethebic of 
Ida, Ida of Eoppa. And Lothere, king of the Kentish- 
men, died the same year. And John was consecrated bishop 
of Hexham, and he was there until Wilfrid returned. 
Afterwards John succeeded to the bishopric of York, for 
bishop Bosa was dead. Then, after that, Wilfrid* his 
priest was consecrated bishop of York, and John retired to 
his minster at Derewood.f This year it rained blood in 
Britain, and milk and butter were turned into blood. 

A. 685. And in this same year Cuthbert was consecrated bishop of 
Hexham by archbishop Theodore at York, because bishop Tumbert had 
Seen driven from the bishopric. 

A. 686. This year Casdwalla and Mul his brother laid 
waste Kent and Wight. This Csedwalla gave to St. Peter's 
minster at Medeshamstede, Hook, which is in an island called 
E£>borough ; the then abbat of the monastery was called 
Egbald. He was the third abbat after Sexwulf. At that 
time Theodore was archbishop in Kent. 

A. 687. This year Mul was burned in Kent, and twelve 
other men with him ; and the same year Casdwalla again 
laid waste Kent. 

A. 688. This year Ina succeeded to the kingdom of the 
West-Saxons, and held it thirty-seven years ; and he built 
the minster at Glastonbury ; and he afterwards went to 
Rome, arid there dwelt to the end of his days : and the same 
year Casdwalla went to Rome, and received baptism from 
the pope, J and the pope named him Peter ; and in about 
seven days he died. Now Lia was the son of Cenred, Cen- 
red of Ceolwald, Ceolwald was Cynegil's brother, and they 
were sons of Cuthwine the son of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cyn- 
ric, Cynric of Cerdic. 

A. 688. This year king Caedwalla went to Rome, and received baptism 
of Pope Sergius, and he gave him the name of l*eter, and in about seven 
days afterwards, on the twelfth before the Kalends of May, while he was yet 
in his baptismal garments, he died ; and he was buried in St. Peter's 
church. And Ina succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons afte 
him, and he reigned twenty-seven years. 

A. 689. 

A- 690. This year archbishop Theodore died ; he wrxj 

"I" Beverley. X Sergius. 


bisliop t\v;intv-two years, and he was buried at Cant('rbury ; 
and Bcrthvrald succeeded to the bishopric. Before tliis tlie 
bi.slioy)s had been Romans, but from this time tiiey were 

A. 69L 

A. 692. This year Berthwald was chosen archbishop on 
the Kalends of July ; he was before that abbat of Reculver. 
There were then two kings in Kent, Withred and Webherd 

A. 698. This year Berthwald was consecrated archbishop 
by Guodun, bishop of the Grauls, on the 5th before the Nones 
of July. * At this time Gebmund, bishop of Rochester, died, 
and archbishop Berthwald consecrated Tobias in his place ; 
and Drithelm departed this life. 

A. 694. This year the Kentish-men compounded with 
Lia, and gave him thirty thousand pounds t for his friendship, 
because tliey had formerly burned Mul. And Witlired suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom of the Kentish-men, and held it 
thirty-three years. Withi-ed was the son of E^jbert, Eg- 
bert of Earconbert, Earconbert of Eadbald, Eadbald of 

As soon as he was king, he commande<l a great council to l>e 
assembled at the place which is called Baccancelde,J in whicii 
sat Withred, king of the Kentish-men, and Berthwald, the 
archbishop of Canterbury, and Tobias, bishop of Rochester, 
and with them were assembled abbats and abbesses, and 
many wise men, all to consult about the bettering of God's 
churches in Kent. Now began the king to speak, and said, 
" It is my will that all the minsters and the churches tliat were 
given and bequeathed to the glory of God in the days of 
faithful kings my predecessors, and in the days of my kins- 
men, of King Ethelbert a-nd those who followed after him, 

♦ The 29th of June. 

•f- " The reading of MSS. B and F, howevsr excessive the sum may ap- 
pear, has been placed in the text, because, unlike the 'thirty men' of 
A.Gt or the ' thirty thousand' of D.E, it is intelligible without haviug 
recourse to conjecture. The payment, whatever its amount may have been, 
was probably the legal compensation for tli-e death of Mul ... Of the 
early Latin \vriters, Ethelwald says, it was 30,000 solidi, * per singul w 
con'^tanti numero sexdecim nummis ;' Florence, of Worcester, 37^1' 
pouiids ; and Malmesbury, 30,000 maucuses, which, at eight to the pounl, 
vould agree with Florence." — Fetrie. X Beckenham, Kent. 


do so remain to the glory of God, and firmlj cou^nne co tc 
all etr.i nitj for evermore. For I, Withred, an earthly king, 
instigated by the King of heaven, and burning with the zeal 
of righteousness, have learned from the institutes of our 
forefathers, that no layman has a right to possess himself of 
a church, nor of any of the things which belong to a church. 
And hence strictly and faithfully do we appoint and decree, 
and in the name of the Almighty God and of all his saints 
we forbid to all kings our successors, and to ealdormen, and 
all laymen any lordship whatever over the churches, and 
over all their possessions, which I, or my elders of olden 
days, have given as an everlasting inheritance to the glory of 
Clirist and of our lady St. Mary, and of the holy apostles. 
And observe, when it shall happen that a bishop, or an abbat, 
or an abbess, shall depart this life, let it be made known to 
the archbishop, and by liis counsel and advice, let such an 
one be chosen as shall be worthy. And let the archbishop 
inquire into the life and purity of him who is chosen to such 
a duty, and in nowise let any one be chosen to such a duty 
without the counsel of the archbishop. It is the duty of 
kings to appoint earls and ealdormen, shire-reeves and 
doomsmen, and of the archbishop to instruct and advise the 
community of God, and bishops, and abbats, and abbesses, 
priests and deacons, to choose and appoint, and consecrate and 
stablish them by good precepts and example, lest any of 
God's flock stray and be lost. 

A. 695. 696. 

A. 697. Tliis year the South-humbrians slew Ostritha, 
Ethelred's queen, Egfrid's sister. 

A. 698. 

A. 699. This year tlie Picts slew Beort the ealdorman. 

A. 700. 701. 

A. 702. This year Kenred succeeded to the kingdom of 
the South-humbrians. 

A. 703. This year bishop Hedda died, and he held the 
bishopric at Winchester twenty-seven years. 

A- 704. This year Ethelred the son of Penda, king of 
the Mercians, became a monk, and he had held the kingdom 
twenty-nine years ; then Kenred succeeded to it. 

A. 70o. This year Alfrid king of the Nortli-humbrians 
died at Driffield on the nineteauth before the Kalends of 


January : and bishop Sexwuli'.* Then Osred Ids son 
succeeded to the kingdom. 

A. 7()6.— 708. 

A. 709. This year bishop Aldhehn died, he was bishop j 
on the west of Selwood ; and in tlie early days of Daniel the 
land of the West-Saxons was divided into two bishop-shires, 
and before that it had been one ; the one ^ Daniel held, the 
other § Aldhelm. After Aldhelni, Forthhere succeeded to 
it. And king Ceolred succeeded to the kingdom of the 
Mercians ; and Kenred went to Rome, and Offa with him. 
And Kenred was there till the end of his life. And the 
same year bishop Wilfrid IJ died at Oundle, and his body 
was carried to Ripon ; he was bishop forty-five years ; him 
king Egfrid had formerly driven away to Rome. 

A. 710. This year Acca, Wilfrid's priest, succeeded to 
the bishopric % which before he had held ; and the same year 
Bertfrid the ealdorman fought against the Picts between 
Ileugh and Carau. And Ina and Nun his kinsman fought 
against Gerent king of the Welsh ; and the same year 
Higbald was slain. 

A. 71 L— 713. 

A. 714. This year Saint Guthlac died, and king Pepin. 

A. 715. This year Ina and Ceolred fought at Wanborough. 
This year died king Dagobert. 

A. 716. This year Osred king of the North-humbrians 
was slain on the southern border ; he had the kingdom seven 
years after Alfrid; then Kenred succeeded to the kingdom, 
and held it two years, then Osric, who held it eleven years ; 
and the same year Ceolred king of the Mercians died, and 
his body lies at Lichfield, and Ethelred's the son of Penda 
at Bardney. Then Ethelbald succeeded to the kingdom of 
the Mercians, and held it forty-one years. Ethelbald was 
the son of Alwy, Alwy of Eawa, Eawa of Pybba, whose 
genealogy is written before.** And that pious man Egbert 
converted the monks in the island of Hiito the right faith, so 
that they observed Easter duly, and the ecclesiastical tonsure. 

A. 717. 

A. 718. This year Ingild the brother of Lia died, and 
their sisters were Cvvenburga and Cuthburga. And Cuthburga 

• Of Lichfield. t Of Sherborne. t Winchr.^er. 

$ Sherborne. fl Of Hexham. ^ Hexliam. •*A. 626. 



built the monasierj at Wimburn ; and she was given in 
marriage to Alfrid king of the North -liumbriang ; but they 
separated during his life-time. 

A. 719. 720. 

A. 72L This year bishop Daniel* went to Rome; and 
the same year Ina slew Cynewulf the etheling. And this 
year the holy bishop Johnf died; he was bishop tl .irty-three 
years, eight months, and thirteen days ; and his body rests 
at Beverley. 

A. 722. This year queen Ethelburga razed Taunton, 
which Ina had previously built ; and Ealdbert the exile 
departed into Surry and Sussex, and Ina fought against the 
South- Saxons. 

A. 723. 724. 

A. 72o. This year Withred king of the Kentish-men died 
on the ninth before the Kalends of May ; he reigned thirty-fuur 
years ; his genealogy is above : and Egbert succeeded to 
the kingdom of Kent ; and Ina fought against the South- 
Saxons, and there slew Ealdbert the etheling, whom he 
before had driven into exile. 

A. 726. 

A. 727. This year Tobias bishop of Roche.ster died, and 
in his place archbishop Berthwald consecrated Aldwulf bishop. 

A. 728. This year Ina went to Rome, and there gave (up) 
his life, and Ethelard his kinsman succeeded to the 
kingdom of the West- Saxons, and held it fourteen years. 
And the same year Ethelard and Oswald the etheling 
fought ; and Oswald was the son of Ethelbald, Ethelbald 
of Cynebald, Cynebald of Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin. 

A. 729. This year the star (called) a comet appeared, and 
Saint Egbert died in li. 

A. 729. And the same year Osric died ; he was king eleven years ; 
then Ceolwulf succeeded to the kingdom, and held it eight yeara. 

A. 730. This year Oswald the etheling died. 

A. 731. This year Osric king of the North-humbrians 
was slain, and Ceolwulf succeed^^d to the kingdom, and held 
It eight years,J and Ceolwulf was the son of Cutha, Cutha 
Df Cuthwin, Cutlntvin of Leodwald, Leodwald of Egwald, 

• Of Winton. + Of York. 

J Osric's death is rightly placed by another .MS. in 729. 


Egwald of Aldlielm, Aldhelm of Ocga, Ocga of Ida, Ida of 
Eoppa. And archbishop Berthwald died on the Ides of 
January ;* he was bishop thirty-seven years six months and 
fourteen days. And the same year Tatwine was con- 
secrated archbishop ;^ he had been before a priest at Bredon 
among the Mercians. Daniel bishop of Winch-ester, and 
Ingwald bishop of London, and Aldwin bishop of Lichfield, 
and Aldwulf bishop of Rochester consecrated him on thb 
tentli of June : he had the archbishopric three years. 

A. 732. 

A. 733. This year Ethelbald conquered Somerton ; and 
the sun was eclipsed, and the whole disc of the sun was like 
a black shield. And Acca was driven from his bishopric. J 

A. 734 This year the moon was as if it had been 
sprinkled with blood ; and archbishop Tatwine and Bede 
died, and Egbert was consecrated bishop. § 

A. 735. This year bishop Egbert received his pall at 

A. 736. This year archbishop Nothelm received his pall 
from the bishop of the Romans. || 

A. 737. This year bishop Forthere,^ and queen Fritho- 
githa** went to Rome. And king Ceolwulf j f received Peter's 
tonsure, and gave his kingdom to Eadbert, his uncle's son ; 
he reigned twenty-one years ; and bishop Ethelwaldl| and 
Acca died, and Conwulf was consecrated bishop. § § And the 
same year king Ethelbald laid waste the land of the North- 

A. 738. This year Eadbert the son of Eata, Eata being 
the son of Leodwald, succeeded to the kingdom of the North- 
humbrians, and held it twenty-one years. His brother was 
archbishop § Egbert the son of Eata ; and they both rest 
in one porch in the city of York. 

A. 739. 740. 

A. 741. This year king Ethelard died, and Cuthred 
his kinsman succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, 
and held it sixteen years ; and he contended strenuously 
against Ethelbald king of the Mercians. And archbishcp 

♦ The i3th of Jinuary. f Of Canterbury. J Hexham. 

$ Of York. II Greg. III. % Of Wjit-fiu. 

*• Of Wessex. {■+ Of Northumbria. 

tX Of Lim]isia3T.e. § § Of York. 

34 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 742-754. 

Nothelm* died, and Cuthbert was consecrated archbishop 1 
and Dun bishop to Rochester. This year York was burnt. 

A. 742. This year a great synod was held at Cloveshou ; 
and there was Ethelbald king of the Mercians, and 
archbishop Cuthbert, and many other wise men. 

A. 743. This year Ethelbald king of the Mercians, and 
Cuthred king of the West -Saxons, fought against the 

A. 744. This year Daniel gave up the see of Winchester, 
and Hunferth succeeded to the bishopric : and stars were 
Been to shoot rapidly : and Wilfrid the younger, f who was 
bishop of York, died on the third before the Kalends of 
May ; J he was bishop thirty years. 

A. 745. This year Daniel died : then forty- three years 
had elapsed since he obtained the bishopric. 

A. 746. This year king Selred was slain, 

A. 747. 

A. 748. This year Cynric the etheling of the West- 
Saxons was slain : and Eadbert king of the Kentish-men 
died ; and Ethelbert, the son of king Withred, succeeded to 
the kingdom. 

A. 749. 

A. 750. This year Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons, 
fought against Ethelhun, the proud ealdorman. 

A. 751. 

A. 752. This year Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons, in 
the twelfth year of his reign, fought at Burford against 
Ethelbald king of the Mercians, and put him to flight. 

A. 753. This year Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons, 
fought against the Welsh. 

A. 754. This year Cuthred, king of the West- Saxons, 
died ; and Kineward obtained the bishopric of Winchester, 
after Hunferth : and the same year Canterbury was burned : 
and Sigebert his kinsman succeeded to the kingdom of the 
West- Saxons, and held it one year. 

A. 755. This year Cynewulf, and the West-Saxon ^witan ' 

• Of Canterbury. 

t Wilfrid the second, archbishop of York, is apparently confounded 
with the bishop of Worcester of the same name. The former vai 
■ucceeded by Egbert in 734. See A. 734 and 776, and Bede, p. 299. 

I The 29th of April. 


deprived his kinsman Sigebert of his kingdom, except 
Hampsliire, for his unjust doings ; and that lie hckl until he 
slew the ealdorman wlio longest abode by him. And then 
Cynewulf drove him into Andred, and he abode there until 
a swine-herd stabbed him at Privets-flood [Frivett, Hamp- 
sliire], and avenged tlie ealdorman Cumbra. 

And Cynewulf fought very many battles against the 
Welsh ; and after he had held the kingdom about one and 
iliirty years, he purposed to expel an etheling, who was 
named Cyneard : and Cyneard was Sigebert's brother. 
And he then learned that the king with a small band was 
gone to Merton to visit a woman ; and he there beset him 
and surrounded the chamber on every side, before the men 
who were with the king discovered him. And when the 
king perceived this, he went to the door, and there manfully 
defended himself, until he beheld the etheling, and then he 
rushed out upon him and sorely wounded him ; and they all 
continued fighting against the king until they had slain 

And upon tliis, the king's thanes having discovered the 
affray by the woman's cries, each, as he was ready, and with 
liis utmost speed ran to the spot. And the etheling offered 
money and life to each of them, and not one of them would 
accept it ; but they continued fighting till they all fell, except 
one, a British hostage, and he was sorely wounded. 

Then upon the morrow, the king's thanes, whom he had 
left behind him, heard that the king was slain, then rode they 
thither, and Osric his ealdorman, and Wiferth his thane, and 
the men whom he had previously left behind. And at the 
town wherein the king lay slain they found the etheling, and 
those within had closed the gates against them ; but they 
then went onward And he then offered them their own 
choice of land and money if they would grant liim the 
kingdom, and showed them that their kinsman were with 
him, men who would not desert him. And they then said, 
that no kinsman was dearer to them than their lord, and that 
they never would follow his murderer. And they then bade 
their kinsmen tnat they should go away from him in safety ; 
but they said that the same had been bidden their companions 
who before that had been with the king ; then they said, tliMS 
they no more j^uiddd it 'than your companions who were 


slain with the king.' And then they continued fifrhting 
around the gates until they made their way in, and slew the 
etiieling, and all the men who were whh him, except one 
who was the ealdorman's godson ; and he escaped with life, 
though he was wounded in several places. 

And Cynewulf reigned thirty-one years, and his body lies 
at Winchester, and thp etheling's at Axminster ; and their 
riglit paternal kin reaches to Cerdic. 

And the same year Ethelbald king of the Mercians was 
slain at Seckington, and his body lies at Repton, and he 
. reigned forty-one years ; and Bernred obtained the kingdom, 
and held it a little while and unhappily. And the same year 
Offa drove out Bernred and obtained the kingdom, and held 
it thirty-nine years ; and his son Egfert held it one hundred 
and forty- one days. OfFa was the son of Thingferth, 
Thingferth of Enwulf, Enwulf of Osmod, Osmod of 
Eawa, Eawa of Pybba, Pybba of Creoda. Creoda of 
Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba, Cnebba of Icel, Icel of 
Eomaer, Eomger of Angeltheow, Angel theow of Offa, Oifa of 
Weermund, Weermund of Wihtlteg, Wihtlaeg of Woden. 

A. 755. This year C\Tiewulf deprived king Sigebert of his kingdom ; 
and Sigebert's brother, Cynehard by name, slew Cynewulf at Merton ; and 
he reigned thirty-one years. And in the same year Ethelbald king of the 
Mercians was slain at Re])ton. And Otfu succeeded to the kingdom of the 
Mercians, Bernred being driven out. 

A. 756. 

A. 7o7. This year Eadbert king of the North-humbrians 
was shorn, and his son Oswulph succeeded to the kingdom, 
and reigned one year ; and he was slain by his household on 
the eighth before the Kal. of August.* 

A. 758. This year archbishop Cuthbert died ; and he 
held tlie archbishopric eighteen years.f 

A. 759. TMs year Bregowin was ordained archbishop at 
St. Michael's-tide, and held the see four years. And Moll 
Kthelwald succeeded to the kingdom of the Northhum- 
Ijrians, and reigned six years, and then resigned it. 

A. 760. This year Ethelbert king of the Kentish-men 
died ; he was the son of king Withred : and Ceclwulf also 

A. 761. This year was the severe winter ; and Moll king 
• The 25th o/ July f Of CaLterbxi y. 


of the Nortli-humbrians slew Oswin at Edwin's Cliff on 
the eighth before the Ides ol' August. 

A. 762. This year archbishop * Bregowin died. 

A. 763. Tiiis year Lambert was ordained archbishop (in 
the fortieth day after mid-winter,| and held the see twenty-«ix 
years. And Frithwald bishop of Whitherne died on the 
Nones of May. J He was consecrated at York on the 
eighteenth before the Kal. of September, § in the sixth year of 
Ceolwulf's reign, and he was bishop twenty-nine years. 
Then Petwin was consecrated bishop of Whitherne at 
Adlingfleet, on the sixteenth before the Kalends of August.] 

A. 764. This year archbishop Lambert received his pall. 

A. 765. This year Alcred succeeded to the kingdom of 
the North-humbrians, and reigned nine years. 

A. 766. Tliis year died archbishop Egbert at York on 
the 1 3th before the Kalends of December ; he was bishop 
rhirty-seven years ; and Fritlibert at Hexham ; he was 
bishop thirty-three years ; and Ethelbert was consecrated 
to York, and Alhmund to Hexham. 

A. 767. 

A. 768. This year king Eadbert the son of Eata, died 
on the thirteenth before the Kalends of September. 

A. 769.— 77L 

A. 772. This year bishop Milred % died. 

A. 773. This year a fiery crucifix appeared in the heavens 
after sunset : and the same year the Mercians and the 
Kentish-men fought at Otford ; and wondrous adders were 
seen in the land of the South- Saxons. 

A. 774. This year at Easter-tide, the North-humbrians 
drove their king Alcred from York, and took Ethelred, the 
son of Moll, .to be their lord ; he reigned four years. 

A. 775. 

A. 776. This year bishop Petwin** died on the thir- 
teenth before the Kalends of October ; he was bishop four- 
teen years. 

A. 777. This year Cynewolf and Offa fought about Ben- 
ftington, and Ofia took the town ; and the same year, oa 

• Canterbury. t The 2nd of February. 

+ The 7th of Mav. § Tlie 15th of August. 

} The 1 7th of Jilly. ni Of Worcester. 
•• Oi Wliitlieme. 

38 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 777-730. 

the seventeenth before the Kalends of July, Ethelbert was 
consecrated at York bishop of Whitherne. 

In the days of king OtFa there was an abbat of Medesham- 
stede called Beonna. The same Beoniia, by the consent ol 
all the monks of the minster, let to Cuthbert the ealdorman 
ten copy-lands at Swineshead, with lease, and with meadow, 
and with all that lay thereto, and on this condition : 
that Cuthbert should give the abbat therefore fifty pounds, 
and each year one day's entertainment, or thirty shillings in 
money ; and furthermore, that after his decease the land 
should return to the minster. The witnesses of this were 
king OfFa, and king Egfert, and archbishop Higbert,* and 
bishop Ceolwulf, and bishop Inwona, and abbat Beonna, and 
many other bishops and abbats, and many other great men. 
In the days of this same OfFa there was an ealdorman who 
was called Brorda. He desired of the king that for love of 
him he would free a minster of his called Woking, because 
he wished to give it to Medeshamstede, and St. Peter, and 
the abbat tliat then was, who was called Pusa. Pusa 
succeeded Beonna, and the king loved him greatly. And 
the king then freed the minster Woking, against king, and 
against bishop, and against earl, and against all men, so that 
no one should have any claim there except St. Peter and the 
abbat. This was done in the king's town called Free- 

A. 778. This year Ethelbald and Herbert slew three 
liigh-reeves ; Edulf, the son of Bosa, at Kings-cliif, and 
Cynewolf and Egga at Helathyrn, on the eleventh before the 
Kalends of April : and then Alfwold obtained the kingdom, | 
and drove Ethelred out of the country ; and he reigned ten 

A. 779. 

A. 780. This year the Old-Saxons and the Franks fought ; 
and the high-reeves of the North -hunibrians burned Bern 
the ealdorman at Silton, on the eightli before the Kalends of 
January : and archbisliop Ethelbert died at York, in 
whose place Eanbald was consecrated ; and bishop Cynewolf 
gave up tlie bishopric of Lindisfarne. This year Alhmund, 
bishop of Hexham, died on the seventh before the Ides of 
beptember, and Tilbert was consecrated in his place on the 
• Of Lichrield! t I^orthumbria. 


sixth before the Nones of October; and Higbald was ccnse- 
ci-ated at Sockbury bishop of Lindisfarne ; and king Alfwold 
sent to Rome for a pall, and invested Banbald as archbishop. 

A. 781. 

A. 782. This year died Werburh, Ceolred's queen, and 
Cynewolf, bishop of Lindisfarne ; and there was a synod at 

A. 783. 

A. 784. This year Cyneard slew king Cynewolf, and was 
himself there slain, and eighty-four men with him; and 
then Bertric obtained the kingdom of the West- Saxons, 
and he reigned sixteen years, and his body lies at Wareham ; 
and his right paternal kin reaches to Cerdic. At this time 
king Elmund reigned in Kent. This king Elmund was 
the father of Egbert, and Egbert was father of Athulf. 

A. 785. This year abbat Bothwin died at Ripon ; and 
this year there was a contentious synod at Chalk-hythe, and 
archbishop Lambert gave up some portion of his bishopric, 
and Higbert was elected by king OfFa ; and Egfert was 
consecrated king. And at this time messengers were sent 
from Rome by pope Adrian to England, to renew the faith 
and the peace which St. Gregory had sent us by Augustine 
tlie bishop ; and they were worshipfully received, and sent 
away in peace. 

A. 786. 

A. 787. This year king Bertric took to wife Eadburga, 
king OiFa's daughter ; and in his days first came three ships 
of Northmen, out of Hasretha-land [Denmark]. And then 
the reve* rode to the place, and would liave driven them to 
the king's town, because he knew not who they were : and 
they there slew him. These were the first ships of Danish- 
men which sought the land of the English nation. 

A. 788. This year a synod was assembled in the land of 
the North-humbrians at Eingall, on the 4th before the 
Nones of September ; and abbat Albert died at Ripon. 

A. 789. This year Alfwold, king of the Northumbrians, 
was slain by Siga on the 8th before the Kalends of October ; 
and a heavenly light was frequently seen at the place where 
he was slain ; and he was buried at Hexham within the 
church ; and Osred, the son of Alcred succeeded to the 
• Sin:e cidled sheriff ; i. e. the reve^ at stewaxd of tne shire. — Ingram. 

40 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 7s»-794. 

kingdom after him : he was his nephew. And a synod was 
assembled at Acley. 

A. 790. This year archbishop Lambert died, and the 
same year abbat Athelard was chosen archbisliop.* And 
Osred, king of the North-humbrians, was betrayed, arnl 
driven from the kingdom ; and Etheh'ed, the son of Ethel- 
wald, again obtained the government. 

A. 79 L This year Baldulf was consecrated bishop of 
Whitherne, on the 16th before the Kalends of August, by 
archbishop Eanbald,f and by bishop Ethelbert. J 

A. 792. This year OiFa, king of the Mercians, commanded 
the head of king Eth-elbert § to be struck off. And Osred, 
who had been king of the Northumbrians, having come 
home after his exile, was seized and slain on the 18th before 
the Kalends of October ; and his body lies at Tinemouth. 
And king Ethelred took a nev/ wife, who was called Elfleda, 
on the 3rd before the Kalends of October. 

A. 793. This year dire forwarnings came over the land 
of the North-humbrians, and miserably terrified the people ; 
these were excessive whirlwinds, and lightnings ; and fiery 
dragons were seen flying in the air. A great famine soon 
followed these tokens ; and a little after that, in the same 
year, on the 6th before the Ides of January, the ravaging of 
heathen men lamentably destroyed God's church at Lindis- 
farne through rapine and slaughter. And Siga died on the 
8th before the Kalends of March. 

A. 794. This year Pope Adrian || and king Offa died ; and 
Ethelred, king of the North-humbrians, was slain by his own 
people on the 13th before the Kalends of May ; and bishop 
Ceolwulf ^ and bishop Eadbald went away from the land. 
And Egfert succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians 
and died the same year. And Eadbert, who by a second 
name was named Pren, obtained the kingdom of Kent. 
And Ethelherd the ealdorman died on the Kalends of Au- 
gust ; and the heathens ravaged among the North-humbrians, 
and plundered Egfert's monastery at the mouth of the Wear ; 
and there one of their leaders was slain, and also some of 
their ships were wrecked by a tempest ; and many of them 

• Of Canterbury. t Of York. 

t Of H^-xh;nn. $ Of East Ang'A. 

H Fop<i Aiiruvji died Decembe 2otb, 795. % Of Liudsev* 


were there dro-vvned, and some came on shore alive, and they 
were soon shiin at the river's mouth. 

A. 79o. This year the moon was eclipsed between cock- 
crowing and dawn, on tlie oth before the Kalends of April ; 
and Eardulf succeeded to the kingdom of the North-hum brians 
on the 2nd before the Ides of May ; and he was afterwards con- 
secrated king, and raised to his throne on the 8th before 
the Kalends of June, at York, by archbishop Eanbald, and 
bishop Ethelbert,* and Higbald,']* and Badulf,J bishops. 

A. 796. This year Kenulf, king of the Mercians, laid 
waste Kent as far as the marshes, and took Pren their king, 
and led him bound into Mercia, and let his eyes be picked 
out and his hands be cut off. And Athelard, archbishop 
of Canterbury, appointed a synod, and confirmed and ratified, 
by the command of Pope Leo, all the things respecting God's 
ministers which were appointed in Withgar's days, and in 
other kings' days, and thus sayeth : 

"I, Athelard, the humble archbishop of Canterbury, by 
the unanimous counsel of the whole synod, and with ... of 
all . . . to the congregation of all the ministers to which in old 
days immunity was given by faithful men, in the name of 
God, and by his awful doom, I command, as I have com- 
mand of Pope Leo, that henceforth none dare to choose for 
themselves lords over God's heritage from amongst laymen. 
But even as it stands in the rescript which the pope has 
given, or those holy men have appointed who are our fathers 
and instructors concerning holy minsters, tfius let them con- 
tinue inviolate, without any kind of gainsaying. If there 
be any man wlio will not observe this ordinance of God, and 
of our pope, and ours, and who despiseth and holdeth it for 
nought, let him know that he shall give account before the 
judgment-seat of God. And I, Athelard, archbishop, with 
twelve bishops, and three and twenty abbats, do confirm and 
ratify this same with Christ's rood-token." 

And archbishop Eanbald died on the 4tli before the Idea 
of August of the same year^ and his body lies at York ; and 
the same year died bishop Ceolwulf ;§ and a second Ean- 

• Of IlexhHUu + TJndisfarne. 

X W hiU\cyfA9. I Of Lind«)y. 


bald was consecrated in the place of the other on the 19th 
before the Kalends of September. 

A. 796. This year OfFa, kint^ of the Mercians, died en the 4th before tJie 
Kalends of Augxist ; he rei^jned forty years. 

A. 797. This year the Romans cut out the tongue of Pope 
' ^, and put out his eyes, and drove him from his see ; and 
fton afterwards, God helping, he was able to see and speak, 
«nd again was pope as he before was. And Eanbald re- 
ceived his pall on the 6th before the Ides of September ; and 
bishop Ethelbert* died on the 17th before the Kalends of No- 
vember ; and Heandred was consecrated bishop in his place 
on the 3rd before the Kalends of November ; and bishop 
Alfun died at Sudbury, and he was buried in Dunwich, and 
Tidfrith was chosen after him ; and Siric, king of the East 
Saxons, went to Rome. In this same year the body of Wit- 
burga was found at Dereham, all whole and uncorrupted, five 
and fifty years after she had departed from this life. 

A. 798. This year there was a great fight at Whalley 
in the land of the North-humbrians, during Lent, on the 4th 
before the Nones of April, and there Alric, the son of Her- 
bert, was slain, and many others with him. 

A. 799. This year archbishop Athelardf and Kenebert 
bishop of the West-Saxons,J went to Rome. 

A. 800. This year, on the 17th before the Kalends of 
February, the moon was eclipsed at the second hour of the 
night. And king Bertric and Worr the ealdorman died, and 
Egbert succeeded to the kingdom of the West- Saxons. 
And the same day Ethelmund, ealdorman, rode over from 
the Wiccians, at Cynemaeresford [Kempsford]. Then Wox- 
tan the ealdorman with the men of Wiltshire met him. 
There was a great fight, and both the ealdormen were slain,, 
and the men of Wiltshire got the victory. 

A. 801. 

A. 801. This year Beommod was ordained bishop of Rochester. 

A. 802. This year on the 13th before the Kalends of 
January the moon was eclipsed at dawn ; and Beornraod was 
ordained bishop of Rochester. § 

• Of Hexham. f Of CHiiterbury $ Winchester. 

4 Placed in 801 by another Mo« 


A. 803. This year died Higbald bishop of Lindisfarne on 

the 8th before the Kulends of Jul/, and Egbert U. was con- 
iiccrated in his stead on the 3d before the Ides of June ; and 
this year archbishop Athehird died in Kent, and Wulfred 
was ordained archbishop ; and abbat Forthred died. 

A. 804. This year archbishop Wulfred received his pall. 

A. 805. This year king Cuthred died among the Kentish- 
men, and Colburga abbess,* and Herbert the ealdorman. 

A. 806. This year the moon was eclipsed on the Kalends 
of September : and Eardulf king of the North-humbrians 
was driven from his kingdom ; and Eanbert bishop of Hex- 
ham died. Also in the same year, on the 2d before the Nones 
of June, a cross appeared in the moon on a Wednesday at 
dawn ; and afterwards in this year, on the third before the 
Kalends of September, a wonderful circle was seen about the. 

A. 807. 808. 

A. 809. This year the sun was eclipsed At the beginning 
of tlie fifth hour of the day on the 17th before the Kalends of 
Auixust, the 2d day of the week, the 29th of the moon. 

A. 810. 8U. 

A. 812. This year king Charlemagne died, and he reigned 
five and forty years ; and archbishop Wulfred and Wigbert 
bishop of the West-Saxons f both went to Rome. 

A. 813. This year archbishop Wulfred, with the blessing 
of pope Leo, returned to his own bishopric ; and the same 
yoar king Egbert laid waste West- Wales from eastward to 

A. 814. This year the noble and holy pope J Leo died, 
and after him Stephen succeeded to the popedom. 

A. 815. 

A. 816. This year pope Stephen died, and after him 
I^aschal was ordained pope ; and the same year the English 
school at Rome§ was burned. 

A. 817. 818. 

A. 819. This year Kenulf king of the Mercians died, 

• Of Berkeley. f Sherborne. 

} Leo 111. died 11th June 816. Eginhard, Arm. Stephen IV. was con- 
tiecrated on the '22d of the same month. 

$ The An;^^Ie-Scho()l was a quarter near St. Peter's, where the English 
pili^rims at Rome resided. According to Anastasius, they called it their 
Borough,' (burgus). V. Anastas. Bihliothecar. de Vita Stephani i *'. 


and Ceolwiilf succeeded to the kingdom ; and Eadbert the 
ealdorman died. 

A. 820. 

A. 82 L This year Ceolwulf was deprived of his king- 

A. 822. This year two ealdormen, Burhelm and Mucca, 
were slain ; and there was a synod at Cloveshoo. 

A. 823. Tliis year there was a battle between the Welsh 
and the men of Devon at Camelford :'\ and the same year Eg- 
bert king of the West- Saxons and Bernulf king of the 
Mercians fought at Wilton, and Egbert got the victory, 
and there was great slaughter made. He then sent from 
the army his son Ethelwulf, and Ealstan his bishop,^ and 
Wulf iierd his ealdorman, into Kent with a large force, and 
they drove Baldred the king northwards over tlie Thames. 
And the men of Kent, and the men of Surrey, and tlie South- 
Saxons, and the East- Saxons, submitted to him ; for for- 
merly they had been unjustly forced from his kin. And the 
same year the king of the East- Angles and the people sought 
tlie alliance and protection of king Egbert for dread of the 
Mercians ; and the same year the East- Angles slew Bernulf 
king of Mercia. 

A. 824. 

A. 825. This year Ludecan king of the Mercians was slain, 
and his five ealdormen with hmi ; and Withlaf succeeded tc 
the kinofdom. 

A. 826. 

A. 827. This year the moon was eclipsed § on the mass- 
night of midwinter. And the same year king Egbert 
conquered the kingdom of the Mercians, and all that was 
south of the Humber ; and he was the eighth king who was 
Bretwalda. ^Ua king of the South- Saxons was the first 
who had thus much dominion ; the second was Ceawlin king 
of the West- Saxons ; the third was Ethelbert king cf the 
Kentish-men ; the fourth was Redwald king of tlie East- 
Ajigles ; the fifth was Edwin king of the North-liumbrians ; 
tiie sixth was Oswald who reigned after liim ; the seventh 
v/as Oswy, Oswald's brother ; the eighth was Egbert king 
cf the West- Saxons. And Egbert led an army to l>ore 

• Mercia. + In Cornwall. I^ Sherborne. 

$ The eclipse happened on tJie 'loth of D<»oember, ii2ii. 


against the North-humbn'ans, and they there offered him 
obedience and allegiance, and with that tliey separated. 

A. 828. This year Withhif again obtained the kingdom of 
the Mercians, and bisliop Ethehvald* died ; and the same 
year king Egbert led an army against the North-Welsh, 
and he forced them to obedient subjection. 

A. 829. Thiff^, year archbishop Wult'red died, and after 
him abbat Theologild was chosen to the archbishopric.f on 
the 7th before the Kalends of May ; and he was consecrated 
upon a Sunday, the oth before the Ides of June : and he 
died on the 3rd before the Kalends of September. 

A. 830. This year Ceolnoth was chosen bishop, J and or* 
dained ; and abbat Theologild died. 

A. 83 L This year archbishop Ceolnoth received his pall. 

A. 832. This year the heathen men ravaged Sheppey. 

A. 833. This year king Egbert fought against the men (A 
thirty-five ships at Charmouth, and there was great slaughter 
made, and the Danish-men maintained possession of the field. 
And Herefrith§ and Wigthun, || two bishops, died ; and Dudda 
and Osmod, two ealdormen, died. 

A. 834. 

A. 835. This year a great hostile fleet came to the West- 
Welsh,^ and tliey united together, and made w^ar upon Eg 
bert king of the ^Vest-Saxons. As soon as he heard of it 
he went thither with an army, and fought against them at 
Hengeston, and there he put to flight both the Welsh and 
the Danish-men. 

A. 836. This year king Egbert died ; before he was 
king, Offa king of the Mercians, and Bertric, king of the 
West-Saxons, drove him out of England into France for 
thi'ee years ; and Bertric assisted Offa, because he had his 
daughter for his queen. And Egbert reigned thirty-seven 
years and seven months : and Ethelwulf the son of Eg- 
bert succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons ; and 
he gave his son Athelstan the kingdoms of the Kentish-men, 
and of the East- Saxons, and of the men of Surrey, and of the 
South- Saxons. 

A. 836. And Ethelstan his other son succeeded to the kingdom of 
the Kentish-men, and to Surrey, and to the kingdom of the South-Saxons. 

• Of Lichfield, f Of Canterbury. J Of Canterlury 

§ Of Seleey. U Of WiEchester. -^ Corn wall. 

46 THE AXGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 837-851. 

A. 837. This year Wulfherd the ealdorman fought at 
Ilamtun [Southampton], against the forces of thirty-five 
si lips, and there made great slaughter, and got the victory : 
and the same year Wulfherd died. And the same year 
Ethelhehn the ealdorman fought against the Danish army 
at Portland-isle vrith the men of Dorset, and for a good 
while he put the enemy to flight ; but the Danish-men had 
possession of the field, and slew the ealdorman. 

A. 838. This year Herebert the ealdorman was slain "by 
the heathen men, and many with him among the Marsh- 
men ; and afterwards, the same year, in Lindsey, and in 
East-Anglia, and in Kent, many men were slain by the 

A. 839. This year there was great slaughter at London, 
and at Canterbury, and at Rochester. 

A. 840. This year king Ethelwulf fought at Charmouth 
against the crews of thirty-five ships, and the Danish-men 
maintained possession of the field. And Louis the emperor 

A. 841.— 844. 

A. 845. This year Eanwulf the ealdorman, with the men 
of Somerset, and bishop Ealstan,* and Osric the ealdor- 
man, with the men of Dorset, fought at the mouth of the 
Parret against the Danish army, and there made great 
slaughter, and got the victory. 

A. 846.— 850. 

A. 851. This year Ceorl the ealdoniian, with the men of 
Devonshire, fought against the heathen men at Wembury,t 
and there made great slaughter and got the victory. And 
the same year king Athelstan and Elchere the ealdormen 
fought on shipboard, and slew a great number of the enemy 
at Sandwich in Kent, and took nine ships, and put the others 
to flight ; and the heathen men, for the first time, remained 
over winter in Thanet. And the same year came three 
hundred and fifty ships to the mouth of the Thames, and the 
crews landed and took Canterbury and London by storm, 
and put to flight BerthAvulf, king of the Mercians, with 
his army, and then went south over the Thames into Surrey ; 
mid there king Ethelwulf and his son Ethelbald, with the 
oniiy of the West- Saxons, fought against them at Ockley, 
• Of Sherborne. t Near Plvmouth. 


ond there made the greatest slaughter among the heathen 
army that we have heard reported to the present day, and 
there got the victory. 

A. 852. At this time Ceolred, abbat of Medeshamstede 
and the monks let to Wulfred tlie land of Sempringham, on 
this condition, that after his decease the laiKl should return 
to the minster, and that Wulfred should give the land of 
Sleaford to Medeehamstede, and each year should deliver 
into the minster sixty loads of wood, and twelve of coal 
and six of faggots, and two tuns full of pure ale, and 
two beasts fit for slaughter, and six hundred loav(>s, and 
ten measures of Welsh ale, and each year a horse, and thirty 
shillings, and one day's entertainment. At this agreement were 
present king Burhred, and archbishop Ceolred, and bishop 
Tunbert, and bishop Cenred, and bishop Aldhun, and 
abbat AVitred, and abbat Werthcrd, and Ethelherd, 
the ealdorman, and Hunbert, the ealdorman, and many 

A. 853. This year Burhred, king of the Mercians, and 
his council, begged of king Ethelwulf tliat he would assist 
liim so that he might make the North-Welsh obedient to 
him. He then did so ; and went with an army across ]\ler- 
cia among the North- Welsh, and made them all obedient to 
him. And the same year king Ethelwulf sent his son 
Alfred to Rome. Leo [IV.] was then pope of Rome ; and 
he consecrated him king, and took him for his son at confir- 
mation. Then, in the same year, Ealhere, with the men of 
Kent, and Huda, with the men of Surry, fought in Tlianet, 
against the heathen army ; and at first they were victorious ; 
and many there were slain, and drowned on either hand, and 
both the ealdormen were killed. And upon this after Easter 
Ethelwulf, king of the West-Saxons, gave his daughter to 
Burhred king of the Mercians. 

A. 854. 

A. 855. This year the heathen men, for the first time, 
remained over winter in Sheppey : and the same year king 
Ethelwulf gave by charter the tenth part of his land 
throughout -his realm for the glory of God and his own 
eternal salvation. And the same year he went to Rome in 
great state, and dwelt there twelve months, and then r»*- 
tumed homewards. And then Charles, king of the Frani;:^ 


gave him his daughter to w4fe ; and after that he came to 
his people, and they were glad of it. And about two years 
after he came from France he died, and his body lies at Win- 
chester. And he reigned eighteen years and a half. And 
Ethelwulf was tlie son of Egbert, Egbert of Elmund, 
Elmund of Eafa, Eafa of Eoppa, Eoppa of Ingild ; Ii gild 
was Ina's brother, king of the West- Saxons, he who held the 
kingdom tliirty-seven years, and afterwards went to St. 
Peter, and there resigned his life ; and they were the sons of 
Kenred, Kenred of Ceolwald, Ceolwald of Cutha, Cutha of 
Cuthwin, Cuthwin of Ceawlin, Ceawlin of Cynric, Cynric 
of Cerdic, Cerdicof Elesa, Elesa of Esla, Eslaof Gewis, Gewis 
of Wig, Wig of Freawin, Freawin of Frithogar, Frithogar 
of Brond, Brond of Beldeg, Beldeg of Woden, Woden of 
Fritliowald, Frithowald of Frealaf, Frealaf of Frithuwulf. 
Frithuwulf of Finn, Finn of Godwulf, Godwulf of Geat, 
Geat of Tcetwa, Tcetwa of Beaw, Beaw of Sceldi, Sceldi 
of Heremod, Heremod of Itermon, Itermon of Hatlira, 
Hathra of Guala, Guala of Bedwig, Bedwig of Sceaf, that 
is, the son oi Noah, he was born in Noah's ark ; Lamech, 
Methusidem, Enoh, Jared, Malalahel, Cainion, Enos, Seth, 
Adam the first man,- and our Father, that is, Christ. Amen. 
Then Ethelwulf's two sons succeeded to the kingdom ; 
Ethelbald succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons ; 
and Ethelbert to the kingdom of the Kentish-men, and to 
the kingdom of the East-Saxons, and to Surry, and to the 
kingdom of the South-Saxons ; and then Ethelbald reigned 
five years. Alfred nis tliird son he had sent to Rome : and 
when Pope Leo f^^-J heard say that Ethelwulf was dead, 
he consecrated Alfred king, and held him as his spiritual son 
at confirmation, even as his father Ethelwulf had requested 
on sending him thither. 

A. 853. And on his return homewards he took to (wife) the daughter 
of Charles, king of the French, whose name was Judith, and he came 
home safe. And then in about two years he died, and his body lies at 
Winchester ; and he reigned eighteen years and a half, and he was the son 
of Egbert. And then his two sons succeeded to the kingdom ; Ethel- 
bald to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and Ethelbert to the kingdom 
of the Kentish-men, and of the East-Saxons, and of Surry, and of the 
South-Saxons. And he reigned tive years. 

A. So6.— 869. 

A. H60. This year died king Etlielbald, and his body lies 


at Sherborne ; and Ethelbert si»cceeded to all the realm 
of his brother, and he held it in goodly concord and in great 
tranquillity. And in his days a large fleet came to land, and 
tlie crews stornied Winchester. And Osric the ealdorman, 
with the men of Hampshire, Ethelwulf the ealdorman, with 
the men of Berkshire, fought against the army, and put 
them to flight, and had possession of the place of carnage. 
And Ethelbert reigned five years, and his body lies at 

A. 861. This year died St. Swithun the bishop.* 

A. 862.-864. 

A. 865. This year the heathen army sat down in Thanet, 
and made peace with the men of Kent, and the men of Kent 
promised them money for the peace ; and during the peace 
and the promise of money the army stole away by night, 
and ravaged all Kent to the eastward. 

A. 866. This year Ethelred, Ethelbert's brother, suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom of the West- Saxons : and the same 
year a great heathen army came to the land of the English 
nation, and took up their winter quarters among the East- 
Angles, and there they were horsed ; and the East- Angles 
made peace with them. 

A. 867. This year the army went from East-Anglia over 
the mouth of the Humber to York in North-humbria. And 
there was much dissension among that people, and they had 
cast out their king Osbext, and had taken to themselves a 
king, ^lla, not of royal blood ; but late in the year they re- 
solved that they would fight against the army ; and therefore 
they gathered a large force, and sought the army at the town 
of York, and stormed the town, and some of them got within, 
and there was an excessive slaughter made of the North- 
humbrians, some within, some without, and the kings were 
both slain : and the remainder made peace with the army. 
And the same year bishop Ealstan died; and he had the 
bishopric of Sherborne fifty years, and his body lies in the 

A. 868. This year the same army went into Mercia to 

Nottingham, and there took up their winter quarters. And 

Burhred king of the Mercians, and his 'witan,' begged of 

Ethelred king of the West- Saxons, and of Alfred his brother, 

• Winchester. „ 



that they would help them, that they might fight against the 
army. And then they went with the West- Saxon power 
into Mercia as far as Nottingham, and there met with the 
army within the fortress ; and besieged them therein : but 
there was no great battle; and the Mercians made peace 
with the army. 

A. 869. This year the army again went to York, and sat 
there one year. 

A. 870. This year the army rode across Mercia into East- 
Anglia, and took up their winter quarters at Thetford : and 
tlie same winter king Edmund fought against them, and the 
Danes got the victory, and slew the king, and subdued all 
the land, and destroyed all the minsters which they came to. 
The names of their chiefs who slew the king were Ilingwar 
and Hubba. At that same time they came to Medesham- 
stede, and burned and beat it down, slew abbat and monks, and 
all that they found there. And that place, which before was 
full rich, they reduced to nothing. And the same year died 
archbishop Ceolnoth. Then went Ethelred and Alfred his 
brother, and took Athelred bishop of Wiltshire, and appomted 
him archbishop of Canterbury, because formerly he had been 
a monk of the same minster of Canterbury. As soon as 
he came to Canterbury, and he was stablished in hi^ arch- 
bishopric, he then thought how he might expol the clerks who 
(were) there within, whom archbishop the Ceolnoth had (be- 
fore) placed there for such need ... as we shall relate. The 
first year that he was made archbishop there was so great a 
mortality, that of all the monks whom he found there within, 
no more than five monks surv'ved. Then for the .... he 
(commanded) his chaplains, and also some priests of his vills, 
that they should help the few monks who there survived to 
do Christ's service, because he could not so readily find 
monks who might of themselves do the service; and for this 
reason he commanded that the priests, the while, until God 
should give peace in this land, should help the monks. In 
that same time was this land much distressed by frequent 
battles, and hence the archbishop could not there effect it, 
for there was warfare and sorrow all his time over England ; 
and hence the clerks remained with tlie monks. Nor was 
there ever a time that monks were not tliere witliin, and they 
ever had lordship over the priests. Again the archbishop 


Ceolnoth thought, and also said to those who were with liim, 
• As soon as God sliall give peace in this land, either 
these priests shall be monks, or from elsewhere I will place 
within the minister as many monks as may do the service ot 

tliemselves : tor God knows that I )* 

A. 871. This yt^ar the army came to Reading in Wessex ; 
and three days after this, two of their earls rode forth 
Then Ethelwulf the ealdorman met them at Englefield, an ■ 
there fought against them, and got the victory : and there 
one of them, whose name was Sidrac, was slain. About 
three days after this, king Ethelrod and Alfred his brother 
led a large force to Reading, and fought against the army, 
and there was great slaughter made on either hand. And 
Ethelwulf the ealdorman was slain, and the Danish-men had 
possession of the place of carnage. And about four days 
after tliis, king Ethelred and Alfred his brother fought 
against the whole army at Ashdown ; and they were in two 
bodies : in the one were Bagsac and Halfdene tlie heatlu-n 
kings, and in the otlier were the earls. And then king 
Ethelred fought against the division under the kings, and 
Chere king Bagsac was slain ; and Alfred his brother 
Mgainst the division under the earls, and there earl Sidrac 
ihe elder was slain, earl Sidrac the younger, and eai^ Osbern, 
and earl Frene, and earl Harold ; and both divisions of the 
^rmy were put to flight, and many thousands slain : and they 
continued fighting until night. And about fourteen days 
after this, king Ethelred and Alfred his brother fought 

• As this portion of the text is slightly defective, the Latin narrative is 
subjoined : Cum autem venisset Cantuariam, statini cogitare coepit quo- 
niodo possit ejicere clericos de ecclesia Christi, quos Ceolnothus pro tali ne- 
cessitaie compulsus ibi posuit. Primo igitur anno ordinationis suie tanta 
mortalitas facta est in ecclesia Christi, ut de tota congTegatione moiiacho- 
rum non remanerent nisi quinque. Qua de causa quia ita subito non potuit 
in venire tot monachos qui ibi servitium Dei facere possent, ex simplicitate 
cordis praecepit ca])ellanis clericis suis, ut essent cum eis usque quod Deus 
pacificaret terram, quae tunc nimis erat turbata propter nimias tempestates 
bellorum. Accepit etiam de villis suis presbyteros, ut essent cum monachis, 
ita tamen ut monachi semper haberent dominatum super clericos. Cogita- 
vit idem archiepiscopus et saepe suis dixit, quia statim cum Deu3 pacem 
no])is dederit, aut isti clerici monachi fier.t, aut ego ubicumque monachos 
inveniam quos reponam. Scit enim Deus, inquit quod aliter facero nnu 
possum. Sed nunquam temporibus suis pax fuit in Anglia, et ideo remar*- 
serunt clerici ciun monachis, nee ullo tempore fuit ecclesia sine mona<'iu& 
Sed reo iste iEtheiredus archicDLscopus potixit laceie. 

E 2 

52 THE ANCLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a. d. 871^74. 

aj»alnst the army at Basing, and there the Danes cbtained 
the victory. And about two months aft3r this, king Ethelre»i 
and Alfred his brother fought against the army at Harden ; 
and they were in two bodies, and they put both to flight, 
and during a great part of the day were victorious ; and there 
was great slaughter on either hand ; but the Danes had pos- 
session of the place of carnage: and there bishop Heah- 
raund* was slain, and many good men : and after this battle 
there came a great army in the summer to Reading. And 
after this, over Easter, king Ethelred died ; and he reigned 
five years and his body Hes at Winburn-minster. 

Then Alfred the son of Ethelwulf, his brother, succeeded 
to the kingdom of the West- Saxons. And about one month 
after this, king Alfred with a small band fought against the 
whole army at Wilton, and put them to flight for a good part 
of the day ; but the Danes had possession of the place of 
carnage. And this year nine general battles were fought 
against the army in the kingdom south of the Thames, 
besides which, Alfred the king's brother, and single 
ealdormen, and king's thanes, oftentimes made incursions on 
them, which were not counted : and within the year nine 
earls and one king were slain. And that year the West- 
Saxons made peace with the army. 

A. 871. And the Danish-men were overcome : and they had two 
heathen kings, Bagsac and Halfdene, and many earls ; and there waa 
king Bagsac slain, and these earls ; Sidrac the elder, and also Sidrac the 
younger, Osbern, Frene, and Harold ; and the army was put to flight. 

A. 872. This year the army went from Reading to 
London, and there took up their ^vinter-quarters : and then 
the Mercians made peace with the army. 

A. 873. This year the army went into North-humbria, 
and took up their winter-quarters at Torksey in Lindsey : 
and then the Mercians made peace with the army. 

A. 874. This year the army went from Lindsey to Repton, 
and there took up their winter-quarters, and drove king 
Burhred over sea abcat twenty-two years after he had 
obtained the kingdom ; and subdued the whole country : and 
Burhred went to Rome, and there remained ; and his body 
li*»^ in St. Mary's church at the English school. And that 
erjne year they committed the kingdom of the Mercians to 
• Of SheiHorue. 


the keeping of Ceolwulf, an unwise king's-thane ; and he 
swore oaths to them, and delivered hostages that it should be 
re-Adj for them on wliatever day they would have it, and that 
he would be ready l)oth in liis own person and with all wiio 
would follow him, for the behoof of the army. 

A. 875. This year the army went from Repton : and 
Halfdene went with some of the army into North-humbria, 
and took up winter-quarters by the river Tyne. And tlie 
army subdued the land, and oft-times spoiled the Picts, and 
the Strathclyde Britons. And the three kings, Gothrun, and 
Oskytel, and Anwind, went with a large army from Repton 
to Cambridge, and sat down there one year. And that 
summer king Alfred went out to sea with a fleet, and fought 
against the forces of seven ships, and one of them he took, 
and put the rest to flight. 

A. 876. This year the army stole away to "VVareham, a 
fortress of the West- Saxons. And afterwards the king made 
peace with the army ; and they delivered to the king hostages 
from among the most distinguished men of the army ; and 
then they swore oaths to him on the holy ring, which they 
never before would do to any nation, that they would 
speedily depart his kingdom. And notwithstanding this, 
that part of the army which was horsed stole away by night 
from the fortress to Exeter. And that year Halfdene 
apportioned the lands of North-humbria : and they thence- 
forth continued ploughing and tilling them. This year Rolla 
overran Normandy with his army, and he reigned fifty 

A. 876. And in this same year the army of the Danes in England swore 
oaths to king Alfred upon the holy ring, which before they would not do to 
any nation ; and they delivered to the king hostages from among the 
most distinguished men of the army, that they would speedily depart from 
his kingdom ; and that by night they broke. 

A. 877. This year the army came to Exeter from 
Wareham ; and the fleet sailed round westwards : and then 
a great storm overtook them at sea, and there one hundred 
and twenty ships were wrecked at Swanwich. And king 
Alfred with his forces rode after the army which was 
mounted, as far as Exeter ; and they were unable to overtake 
them before they were within the fortress, where tliey could 
not be come at. And they there delivered to him hostages 

5 i THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 878-879. 

!vs many as lie would have, and swore many oaths : and then 
they observed the peace well. And at'terwards, during 
harvest, the army went into Mercia, and some part of it they 
apportioned, and some they delivered to Ceolwulf. 

A. 878. This year, during midwinter, after twelfth night, 
tlie army stole aAvay to Chippenham, and overran the land of 
the West- Saxons, and sat down there ; and many of the 
people they drove beyond sea, and of the remainder the 
greater part they subdued and forced to obey them, except 
king Alfred : and he, with a small band, with difficulty 
retreated to the woods and to the fastnesses of the moors. 
And the same winter the brother of Hingwar and of Halfdene 
came with twenty-three ships to Devonshire in Wessex ; and 
he was there slain, and with him eight hundred and forty 
men of his army : and there was taken the war-flag which 
they called the Raven. After this, at Easter king Alfred 
with a small band constructed a fortress at Athelney ; and 
from this fortress, with that pait of the men of Somerset 
which was nearest to it, from time to time they fought 
against the army. Then in the seventh week after Easter he 
rode to Brixton, on the east side of Selwood ; and there 
came to meet him all the men of Somerset, and the men of 
Wiltshire, and that portion of the men of Hampshire which 
was on this side of the sea ; and they were joyful at his 
presence. On tlie following day lie went from tliat station 
to Iglea [Hey], and on the day after this to Heddington, 
and there fought against the whole army, put them to flight, 
and pursued them as far as their fortress : and there he sat 
down fourteen days. And then the army delivered to him 
hostages, with many oaths, that they would leave his 
kingdom, and also promised him that their king should 
receive bnptism : and this they accordinu^ly fullilled. And 
about three weeks after this king Gothrun came to him, 
v/ith some thirty men who were of the most distinguislied in 
the army, at Aller, wliich is near Athehiey : and the king 
was his godfather at baptism ; and his chrism-loosing* was at 
Wedmore : and he was twelve days with tlie king; and he 
greatly honoured him and his comjtanions with gifts. 

A. 879. This year the army went to Cirencester froni 

• Apparently the removal of the fillet which, covering the chrism on 
the forehead. uiu-» bound round the head at cnufirmatiou. 


Chippenham, and sat there one year. And that year a 
lx)dy of pirates drew together, and sat down at Fulham on 
the Thames. And that same year the sun was eclipsed 
during one hour of the day.* 

A. 880. Tliis year the army went from Cirencester to 
East Anglia, and settled in the land, and apportioned it. 
And that same year the army, which previously had sat 
down at Fulham, went over sea to Ghent in France, and 
sat there one year. 

A. 881. This year tlie anny went further into France, 
and the French fought against them: and then was the 
army there horsed after the battle. 

A. 882. This year the army went up along the banks of 
the Maese far into France, and there sat one year. And 
that same year king Alfred went out to sea with his ships, 
and fought against the forces of four ships of Danish men, 
and took two of the ships, and the men were slain that were 
in them ; and the forces of two ships surrendered to him, 
and they were sorely distressed and wounded before they 
surrendered to him. 

A. 883. This year the army went up the Scheldt to 
Conde, and sat there one year. And Marinus the pope 
then sent 'lignum Domini' to king Alfred ; and that same 
year Sighelm and Athelstan carried to Rome the alms 
which the king had vowed to send thither, and also to 
Lidia, to St. Thomas and to St. Bartholomew, when they 
sat down against the army at London ; and there, thanks be 
to God, they largely obtained the object of their prayer after 
the vow. 

A. 884. This year the army went up the Somme to 
Amiens, and there sat one year. This yearj the benevo 
lent bishop Ethelwold died. 

A. 885. JThis year the fore-mentioned army divided it- 
self into two; the one part went eastward, the other part 

• The eclipse happened on the 14th of March, 880. 

t The account of the death of Ethelwold bishop of Winchester, here 
inserted in MS. F., is anticipated a century by the carelessness of the 
scribe : the name of his successor in the Latin puts this bevond all doubt. 
See A. 984- 

I Aaser omits tne erents of A. 884 of the Chronitee, and places those of 
885 under that year. At auy rate the foreign tranaactiona are rightly w 


to Rochester, and besieged the city, and wrought another 
fortress about themselves. And, notwitlistanding tliis, the 
townsmen defended the city till king Alfred came out with 
his forces. Then went the army to their ships, and aban- 
doned their fortress ; and they were there deprived of tlieir 
horses, and soon after, in that same manner, departed over 
sea. And that same year king Alfred sent a fleet from 
Kent to East-Anglia. So soon as they came to the mouth 
of the SiDur, there met them sixteen ships of pirates; and 
they fought against them, and captured all the ships and 
killed the men. As they afterwards return (id homeward 
with the booty, a large fleet of pirates met tliem, and then 
fought against them that same day, and the Danish-men had 
the victory. That same year, before mid-winter, * Charles king 
of the French died ; he was killed by a wild boar ; and one 
year before this, his brother f died: he too had the western 
kingdom : and they were both sons of Louis, who likewise 
had the western kingdom, and died that year wlien the sun 
was eclipsed : he was son of Charles | whose daughter 
Ethelwulf, king of the West- Saxons, had for his queen. 
And that same year a large fleet drew together against the 
Old Saxons ; and there was a great battle twice in that year, 
and the Saxons had the victory, and the Frisians were there 
with them. That same year Charles § succeeded to the wes- 
tern kingdom, and to all the kingdom on this side the Wen- 
ilel-sea [Tuscan Sea], and beyond this sea, in like manner 
as his great-grandfather had it, with the exception of the 
Lid-wiccas [Bretons]. Charles was Louis's son ; Louis was 
Charles's brother, who was father of Judith, whom king 
Ethelwulf had ; and they were sons of Louis, Louis was 
son of the elder Charles, Charles was Pepin's son. And 
that same year died the good Pope Marinus, who, at the 
prayer of Alfred king of the West- Saxons, freed the Eng- 
lish school; and he sent him great gifts, and part of the 
rood on which Christ suffered. And that same year the 
army in East-Anglia broke the peace with king Alfred. 

A. 8S6. This year the army which before had drawn 
eastward, went westward again, and thence up the Seine, 
and there took up their winter quarters near the town of 
Faris. That same year king Alfred repaired London ; and 

* Curlomau. t Luuis U. % The Bald § The FaU 


all the English submitted to him, except those who were 
under the bondage of the Danish-men ; and then he com- 
mitted the town to the keeping of Ethered the ealdorman. 

A. 887. This year the army went up through the bcidge 
at Paris, and thence up along the Seine as far as the Marne, 
and thence up the Marne to Chezy, and then sat down, there, 
and on the Yonne, two winters in the two places. And that 
same year Charles* king of the French died ; and six weekt 
before he died, Arnulf his brother's son bereaved him of the 
kingdom. And then was that kingdom divided into five, 
and five kings were consecrated thereto. This, however, 
was done by permission of Arnulf : and they said that they 
would hold it from his hand, because none of them on the 
father's side was born thereto except him alone. Arnulf 
then dwelt in the land east of the Rhine : and Rodulf then 
succeeded to the middle kingdom,f and Oda to the western 
part, and Beorngar and WithaJ to the land of the Lombards 
and to the lands on that side of the mountain : and that they 
held in great discord, and fought two general battles, and oft 
and many times laid waste the land, and each repeatedly 
drove out the other. And that same year that the army 
went up beyond the bridge at Paris, Ethelhelm the ealdor- 
man § carried the alms of the West-Saxons and of king 
Alfred to Rome. 

A. 888. This year Beeke the ealdorman carried the alms 
of the West- Saxons and of king Alfred to Rome ; and queen 
Ethelswith, who was king Alfred's sister, died on the way 
to Rome, and her body lies at Pavia. And that same year 
Athelred archbishop of Canterbury, and Ethelwold the eal- 
dorman died in the same month. 

A. 889. In this year there was no journey to Rome, ex- 
cept that king Alfred sent two couriers with letters. 

A. 890. This year abbat Bernhelm carried the alms of 
the West- Saxons and of king Alfred to Rome. And Goth- 
run the Northern king died, whose baptismal name was 
Athelstan ; he was king Alfred's godson, and he abode in 
Kast-Anglia, and first settled that country. And that same 
year the army went from the Seine to St. Lo, which is be 
t'veen Brittany and France ; and the Bretons fought against 
tlipm. and had the victory, and drove them out into a river, 

• Tne Fat, Burgundv J Guido. § Of Wilu. 


and drowned many of them. This year Plegmund waa 
chosen of God and of all the people to be archbishop of 

A. 89 L This year the army went eastward ; and Idng 
Arnulf, with the East-Franks and Saxons and Bavarians, 
fou{;lit against that part which was mounted before the ships 
came up, and put them to flight. And three Scots came to 
king Alfred in a boat without any oars from Ireland, whence 
tliey had stolen away, because they desired for the love of 
God to be in a state of pilgrimage, they recked not where. 
The boat in which they came was made of two hides and a 
half ; and they took with them provisions sufficient for seven 
days ; and then about the seventh day they came on shore in 
Cornwall, and soon after went to king Alfred. Thus thej 
were named : Dubslane, and Macbeth, and Maelinmun. 
And Swinney, the best teacher among the Scots, died. 

A. 892. And that same year after Easter, about Rogation 
week or before, the star appeared which in Latin is called 
conieta; some men say in English that it is a hairy star, 
because a long radiance streams from it, sometimes on the 
one side, and sometimes on each side. 

A. 893. In this year the great army, about wliich we for- 
merly spoke,* came again from the eastern kingdom westward 
to Boulogne, and there was shipped ; so that they came over 
in one passage, horses and all ; and they came to land at 
Lirane-mouth with two hundred and fifty ships. This port 
is in the eastern part of Kent, at the east end of the great 
wood which we call Andred ; the wood is in length from 
east to west one hundred and twenty miles, or longer, and 
thirty miles broad : the river of which we before spoke flows 
out of the weald. On this river they toAved up their shipa 
as far as the weald, four miles from the outward harbour, 
and there stormed a fortress : within the fortress a few 
churls were stationed, and it was in part only constructe(L 
Then soon after that Hasten with eighty 8hi})y landed at the 
moutli of the Thames, and wrought himself a fortress at 
Mihon ; and the other army did the like at Appledore. 

A. 894. In this year, that was about a twelve-month after 
these had wrought the fortress in the eastern district, the 
Nor^h-humbrians and the East- Angles had given oathj to 
• See back at a.d. 891. 


king Alfred, and the East-Angles six hostages ; and never- 
theless, contrary to their plighted trotii, as oft as the other 
armies went out with all their force, they also went out, 
either with tliem or on tiieir own part. On this king Alfred 
gathered together his forces, and proceeded until he en- 
camped between the two armies, as near as he could for the 
wood fastnesses, and for the water fastnesses, so that lie 
might be able to reach either of them in case they should 
seek any open country. From this time the enemy always 
went out along the weald in bands and troops, by whichever 
border was at the time without forces : and they also were 
sought out by other bands, almost every day, either by day 
or night, as well from the king's force as also from the towns. 
The king had divided his forces into two, so that one half 
was constantly at home, the other half in the field ; besides 
those men whose duty it was to defend the towns. The army 
did not come out of their stations with their whole force 
oftener than twice : once when they first came to land, be- 
fore the forces were assembled ; a second time when they 
would go away from their stations. Then had they takei^ 
much booty, and would at that time go northward over tlie 
Thames into Essex towards their ships. Then the king's 
forces outrode and got before them, and fought against them 
at Farnham, and put the array to flight, and retook the 
booty ; and they fled over the Thames, where there was no 
ford ; then up along the Colne into an island. Then the 
forces there beset them about so long as they there had any 
provisions : but at length they had stayed their term of ser- 
vice, and had consumed their provisions ; and the king was 
then on his way thitherwards with the division which 
warred under him. While he was on his way thither, and 
the other force was gone homewards, and the Danish-men 
remained there behind, because their king had been wounded 
in the battle, so that they could not carry him away, then 
those who dwell among tlie North-humbrians and among the 
East-Anglians gathered some hundred ships and went about 
south ; and some forty siiij)S about to the north, and be- 
sieged a fortress in Devonshire by the north sea ; and those 
who went about to the south besieged Exeter. When the 
king heard that, then turned he westward towards Exeter 
with all his force, except a very sciall body of the peopk 


eastwaru. These went onwards until thej came to London ; 
and then with the townsmen, and the aid wMch came to 
them from the west, they went east to Bamfleet. Hasten 
was then come there with his band which before sat at 
!Milton ; and the great army was also come thereto, which 
before sat at Appledore near Limne-mouth. The fortress at 
Bamfleet had been ere this constructed by Hasten, and he 
was at that time gone out to plunder ; and the great armv 
was therein. Then came they thereto, and put the army to 
flight, and stormed the fortress, and took all that was within 
it, as well the property, as the women, and the children also, 
and brought the whole to London ; and all the ships they 
either broke in pieces or burned, or brought to London or to 
Rochester ; and they brought the wife of Hasten and his 
two sons to the king : and he afterwards gave them up to 
him again, because one of them was his godson, and the 
other Ethered, the ealdorman's. They had become their 
godfathers before Hasten came to Bamfleet, and at that 
time Hasten had delivered to him hostages and taken oaths : 
and the king had also given him many gifts ; and so like- 
wise when he gave up the youth and the woman. But as 
soon as they came to Bamfleet, and the fortress was con- 
structed, then plundered he that very part of the king's realm 
wliich was in the keeping of Ethered his compeer ; and 
again, this second time, he had gone out to plunder that very 
same district when his fortress was stormed. Now the king 
with his forces had turned westward towards Exeter, as I 
said before, and the army had beset the city ; but wlien 
he arrived there, then went they to their ships. While the 
king was thus busied with the array there, in the west, and! 
both the other armies had drawn together at Shoebury in 
Essex, and there had constructed a fortress, then both to- 
gether went up along the Thames, and a great addition 
came to them, as well from the East-Anglians as from tho 
North-humbrians. They then went up along the Thames 
till they reached the Severn ; then up along the Severn. 
Then Ethered the ealdorman, and Ethelm tlie ealdorman, 
and Ethelnoth the ealdorman, and the king's thanes who 
were then at home in the fortified places, gathered forces 
from every town east of the Parret, and as well west as east 
of iStjlwood, and also north of the Thamci- and west of the 


Severn, and also some part of the North-Welsh people. 
When they had all drawn together, then they came up with 
the army at Buttington on the banks of the Severn, and there 
beset them about, on either side, in a fastness. When thej 
had now sat there many weeks on both sides of the river, 
and the king was in the west in Devon, against the fleet, 
then were the enemy distressed for want of food ; and hav- 
ing eaten a great part of their horses, the others being 
starved with hunger, then went they out against the men 
who were encamped on the east bank of the river, and fought 
against them : and the Christians had the victory. And 
Ordhelm a king's thane was there slain, and also many other 
king's thanes were slain ; and of the Danish-men there was 
very great slaughter made ; and that part which got away 
thence was saved by fliglit. When they had come into 
Essex to their fortress and to their ships, then the survivors 
again gathered a great army from among the East-Angl^^s 
and the North-humbrians before winter, and committed their 
wives and their ships and their wealth to the East- Angles, 
and went at one stretch, day and night, until they arrived at 
a western city in Wirall, which is called Lega-ceaster 
[Chester]. Then were the forces unable to come up with 
them before they were within the fortress : nevertheless 
they beset the fortress about for some two days, and took all 
the cattle that was there without, and slew the men whom 
they were able to overtake without the fortress, and burned 
all the corn, and with their horses ate it every evening. 
And this was about a twelve-month after they first came 
hither over sea. 

A. 895. And then soon after that, in this year, the army 
from Wirall went among the North- Welsh, for they were 
unable to stay there : this was because they had been de- 
prived both of the cattle and of the corn which they had 
plundered. When they had turned again out of North- 
Wales, with the booty which they had there taken, then 
went they over Nortliuraberland and East-Anglia, in 
such wise that the forces could not overtake them before 
they cam^ to the eastern parts of the land of Essex, to an 
island that is out on the sea, which is called Mersey. And 
a,^ the army which had beset Exeter again turned homewar'JU, 
theu spoil<^ they the South-Saxons ntar Chichester ', and 


the townsmen put them to flight, and slew many hundreds 
of tliem, and took some of their ships. Then that same 
year, before winter, the Danish-men who had sat down in 
iNIersey, towed their ships up the Thames, and thence up the 
Lea. Tliis was about two years after they had come hither 
over sea. 

A. 896. In that same year tlie fore-mentioned army con- 
structed a fortress on the Lea, twenty miles above London. 
After this, in summer, a great body of the townsmen, and 
also of other people, went onwards until they arrived at the 
Danish fortress ; and there they were put to flight, and 
some four king's thanes were slain. Then after this, during 
harvest, the king encamped near to the town, while the 
people reaped the corn, so that the Danish-men might not 
deprive them of the crop. Then on a certain day the king 
ix)de up alor^ the river, and observed where the river might 
be obstructed, so tiiat they would be unable to bring out 
their ships. And they then did thus : they constructed two 
fortresses on the two sides of the river. When they had 
already begun the work, and had encamped before it, 
then perceived the army that they should not be able to 
bring out their ships. They then abandoned them, and 
went across the country till tliey arrived at Bridgenorth by 
the Severn ; and there they constructed a fortress. Then 
the forces rode westwards after the army : and the men of 
London took possession of the ships ; but all which they 
could not bring away, they broke up, and those which were 
worthy of capture they brought to London : moreover the 
Danish-men had committed their wives to the keeping of the 
Etxst- Angles before they went out from their fortress. Then 
sat they down for the winter at Bridgenorth. This was 
about three years after they had come lather over sea to 

A. 897. After this, in the summer of this year, the army 
broke up, some for East-Anglia, some for North-humbria ; 
and they who were moneyless procured themselves ships 
there, and went southwards over sea to the Seine. Thanks 
be to God, the army had not utterly broken down the Eng- 
lish nation ; but during tlie three years it was much mor»3 
broken down by the mortality among cattle and among mei\, 
aiiv liiodt of aU by tliis, that many of the most eniiuoat 


king's thanes in the land died during the three years ; some 
of whom were, iswitlmlf, bishop of Rochester, and Ceol- 
ifluud, ealdorman of Kent, and Bertulf, ealdorman o/ 
Essex, and Wulfred, ealdorman of Hampshire, and Eat- 
hard, bishop of Dorchester, and Eadulf, the king's thane in 
Sussex, and Bernwulf, the governor of Winchester, and 
Eadulf, the king's horse-thane, and many also besides these, 
though I have named the most distinguished. That same 
year the armies from among the East-Anglians and from 
among the North-humbrians harassed the land of the West- 
Saxons, chiefly on the south coast, by praedatory bands ; 
most of all by their esks, which they had built many 
years before. Then king Alfred commanded long ships to 
be built to oppose the esks ; they were full-nigh twice as 
long as the others ; some had sixty oars, and some had more; 
they were both swifter and steadier, and also higher than the 
others. Tliey were shapen neither like the Frisian nor the 
Danish, but so as it seemed to him they would be most efficient. 
Then some time in the same year, there came six ships to the 
Isle of Wight, and there did much harm, as well as in Devon, 
and elsewhere on the sea-coast. Then the king commanded 
nine of the new ships to go thither, and they obstructed their 
passage from the port towards tlie outer sea. Then went 
tliey with three ef their ships out against them ; and three 
lay in the upper paTt of the port in the dry ; for the men 
were gone ashore. Then took they two of the tliree 
ships at the outer part of the port, and killed the men, and 
the other ship escaped j in that also the men were killed ex- 
cept five : they got away because the other ships were 
aground. They also were aground very disadvantageously : 
three lay aground on that side of the deep on which the 
Danish ships were aground, and all the rest upon the other 
side, so that no one of them could get to the others. But 
when the water had ebbed many furlongs from the ships, 
then the Danish-men went from their three ships to the 
other three which were left by the tide on their side, antl 
then they there fought against them. There was slain Lu- 
cumon, the king's reeve, and Wulfheard, the Frisian, and 
Ebb, the Frisian, and Ethelere, the Frisian, and Ethelfertli, 
the king's neat-herd, and of all the men, Frisians and Eng- 
lish, seventy-two ; and of the Danish-men, one hundi'cd and 


twenty. Then, however, the flood-tide came to the Danish 
6hip3 before the Christians could shove theirs off, and they 
therefore rowed them out : nevertheless, they were damaged 
to such a degree that they could not row round the Sussex 
land ; and there the sea cast two of them on shore, and the 
men were led to the king at Winchester ; and he commanded 
them to be there hanged : and the men who were in the 
single ship came to East-Anglia, sorely wounded. That 
same summer no less than twenty ships, with their crews, 
wholly perished upon the south coast. That same year died 
Wulfric, the king's horse-thane ; he was also " Wealh- 

A. 898. In this year died Ethelm, ealdorman of Wiltshire, 
nine days before midsummer ; and tliis year died Elstan, 
who was bishop of London. 

A. 899. 900. 

A. 90L This year died Alfred, the son of Ethelwulf, six 
days before the mass of All Saints. He was king over the whole 
English nation, except that part which was under the do- 
minion of the Danes ; and he held the kingdom one year 
and a half less than thirty years. And then Edward his 
son succeeded to the kingdom. Then Ethelwald, the ethe- 
ling, his uncle's son, seized the castle at Wimborne* and that at 
Twineham,t without leave of the king and of his " witan." 
Then rode the king with his forces until he encamped at 
Badbury, near Wimborne ; and Ethelwald sat within the 
vill, with the men who had submitted to him ; and he had 
obstructed all the approaches towards him, and said that he 
would do one of two things — or there live, or there lie. 
But notwithstanding that, he stole away by night, and 
sought the army in North-humbria ; and they received him 
for their king, and became obedient to him. And the king 
commanded that he should be ridden after ; but they were 
unable to overtake him. They then beset the woman whom 
he had before taken, without the king's leave, and against 
the bishop's command ; for she had previously been conse- 
crated a nun. And in this same year Ethelred, who was 
eaidormun of Devonshire, died, tcur weeks before king 

• Dorsetshire. 

t Chrij^church, New Forest aivision of Southampton. 


A. 902. And that samo year was the battle at the Holme, 
between the Kentish-men and the Danish-men. 

A. 902. This year Elswitha died. 

A. 903. This year died Athulf, the ealdorman, brother of 
Els"v^'^tha, king Edward's mother ; and Virgilius, abbat of 
tlie Scots ; and Grimbald,the mass-priest, on the 8th before the 
Ides of July. And this same year was t]w consecration of 
the New-minster at Winchester, and vSt. Judoc's advent. 

A. 904. This year Ethelwald came hither over sea with 
the ships that he was able to get, and he was submitted to in 
Essex. This year the moon was eclipsed. 

A. 905. This year Ethelwald enticed the army in East- 
Anglia to break the peace, so that they ravaged over all the 
land of Mercia until they came to Cricklade, and there they 
went over the Thames, and took, as well in Bradon as 
thereabout, all that they could lay hands on, and then turned 
homewards again. Then king Edward went after them, as 
speedily as he could gather his forces, and overran all their 
land between the dikes and the Ouse, all as far north as the 
fens. When, after this, he would return thence, then 
commanded he it to be proclaimed through his whole force, 
that they should all return together. Then the Kentish-men 
remained there behind, notwithstanding his orders, and 
seven messengers whom he had sent to them. Then the 
army there came up to them, and there fought them : and 
there Siwulf the ealdorman, and Sigelm the ealdorman, and 
Eadwold the king's thane, and Kenwulf the abbat, and 
Sigebright son of Siwulf, and Eadwold son of Acca, were 
slain, and like^vise many with them, though I have named 
the most distinguished. And on the Danish side were slain 
Eohric their king, and Ethelwald tlie etheling, who liad 
enticed him to break the peace, and Byrtsige son of Brith- 
noth the etheling, and Ysopk the 'hold' [governor?], and Os- 
kytel the hold, and very many with them, whom we are no\J^ 
unable to name. And there was great slaughter made on 
either hand ; and of the Danish-men there were more slain, 
though they had possession of the place of carnage. A nd 
Elhswitha died that same year. This year a comet appeared 
on the thirteenth before the Kalends of Novembei. 

A- 906. In this year died Alfred, who was governor of 


Bath. And in the same year peace was conclui'.fcd at Ilitch- 
inirford, even as king Edward ordained, as -well with the 
East- Angles as with the North-humbrians. 

A. 906. This year king Edward, from necessity, concluded a peace both 
s'itli the army of East-Anglia and of North-humbria. 

A. 907. This year Chester was repaired. 

A. 908. This year died Denewulf, who was bishop at 

A. 909. This year St. Oswald's body was removed from 
Eardney into Mercia. In this year the Angles and the 
Danes fought at Tootenhall on the eighth before the Ides 
of August, and the Angles obtained the victory. And that 
same year Ethelfled built the fortress at Bramsbury. 

A. 910. This year Frithstan succeeded to the bishopric 
at Winchester ; and, after that, bishop Asser died ; he was 
bishop at Sherborne. And that same year king Edward 
sent out a force both of West-Saxons and of Mercians, and 
they greatly spoiled the army of the north, as well of men 
as of every kind of cattle, and slew many of the Danish- 
men : and they were therein five weeks. 

A.. 910. This year the army of the Angles and of the Danes fought at 
Tootenhall. And Ethelred ealdorof the Mercians died ; and king Edward 
t0(jk possession of London, and of Oxford, and of all the lands which 
owed obedience thereto. And a great fleet came hither from the ^outh, 
from the Lidwiccas^ [Brittany,] and greatly ravaged by the Severn ; but 
tliey there, afterwards, almost all perished. 

A. 9n. This year the army among the North-humbrians 
broke the peace, and despised whatever peace king Edward 
and his 'witan' offered them, and overran the land of Mercia. 
And the king had gathered too:ether some hundred ships, and 
was then in Kent, and the ships went south-east along the 
sea-coast towards him. Then thought the army that the 
greatest part of his force was in the ships, and that they 
should be able to go, unfought, wheresoever they chose 
AV^hen the king learned that, that they were gone out to 
plunder, then sent he his forces after them, both of the West- 
Saxons and of the Mercians ; and they overtook the army as 
they were on their way homewards, and then fought against 
tl»em, and put them to flight, and slew many thousands ot 
them ; and there were slain king Ecwils, and king Halfdene 
end Ohter the earl, and Scurf the earl, and OtliuU* th'i hold, 


an<l Benesing tlie hold, and Aiilaf the black, an«l Thurff rth 
the hold, and Osferth the collector and Guthferth the hold, and 
A^gmund the hold, and Guthferth, 

A. 911. Then the next year after this died Ethelred lord of the 

A. 912. This year died Ethered ealdorman of tlie 
IMcrcians ; and king Edward took possession of London and 
of Oxford, and of all the lands which owed obedience thereto. 
This year Ethelfled lady of tlie Mercians came to Scaergate 
on the holy eve, ' Livention of the Holy Cross,' and tiiere 
built the fortress ; and the same year, that at Bridgenorth. 

A. 913. In this year, about Martinmas,* king Edward 
commanded the northern fortress to be built at Hertford, 
between the Memer, the Benewic, and the Lea. And then 
after that, during tlie summer, between Rogation-days and 
midsummer, king Edward went with some of his forces to 
Maldon in Essex, and there encamped, whilst the fortress at 
Witham was wrought and built ; and a good part of the 
people who were before under the dominion of the Danish- 
men submitted to him : and in the meanwhile some part of 
his force constructed the fortress at Hertford, on the south side 
of the Lea. This year, by the help of God, Ethelfled lady 
of the Mercians went with all the Mercians to Tamworth, 
and there built the fortress early in the summer ; and after 
this before Lammas, tliat at Stafford. 

A. 914. Then after this, in the next year, that at 
Eddesbury, early in the summer ; and afterwards, in the 
same year, late in harvest, that at Warwick. 

A. 915. Then after this, in the next year, after mid- 
winter, that at Chirk, and that at Warburton ; and 
that same year, before mid-winter, that at Runcorn. 

A. 9)5. This year was Warwick built. 

A. 916. This year abbat Egbert was guiltlessly slain, be- 
fore midsummer, on the sixteenth before the Kalends of July : 
the same day was the feast of the martyr St. Ciricius and 
his fellows. And about three days after this, Ethelfled sent 
her forces among the Welsh, and stormed Brecknock, 

* Florence of Worcester seems to understand this as relating to the 
festival of St. Martin of Tours, 11 Nov. and places Maldon, ficc. 48 \wii dM 
tke events of 917 of the text, under the vear 914 



and there took the king's wife, and eorae four and thirty 

A. 917. In tliia year, after Easter, the army rode forth 
from Northampton and Leicester, and broke the peace, and 
slew many men at Hockerton, and there about. And then very 
speedily after that, when the one came home, then they ^rot 
ready another troop which rode out against Leighton : and then 
the inhabitants were aware of them, and fought against them, 
and put them to full flight, and retook all which they had 
seized, and also a great portion of their horses and of thei? 
weapons. This year, before Lammas, Ethelfled, lady of tlie 
^Mercians, God helping her, got possession of the fortress which 
is called Derby, witli all that owed obedience thereto ; and 
there also were slain, within the gates, four of her thanes, 
which to her was a cause of sorrow. 

A. 918. This year, in the early part of the year, by God's 
help, she got into her power, by treaty, the fortress at Leicester, 
and the greater part of the army which owed obedience 
thereto became subject to her; and the people of York had 
also covenanted with her, some having given a pledge, and 
some having bound themselves by oath, that they would be 
at her command. In this year a great fleet came over hither 
from the south, from the Lidwiccas, [Brittany,] and with it 
two earls, Ohtor and Rhoald : and they went west about till 
they arrived within the mouth of the Severn, and they 
spoiled the North- Welsh every^vhere by the sea-coast where 
they then pleased. And in Ai'chenfield they took bishop* 
Cameleac, and led him with them to their ships ; and tlien 
king Edward ransomed him afterwards with forty pounds. 
Then after that, the whole army landed, and would have gone 
once more to plunder about Archenfield. Then met them the 
men of Hereford and of Gloucester, and of the nearest towns, 
and fought against them and put them to flight, and slew the 
earl Rhoald, and a brother of Ohter the other earl, and many 
of tlie army, and drove them into an inclosure, and there 
beset them about, until they delivered hostages to them tliat 
they would depart from king Edward's dominion. And the 
king had so ordered it that his forces sat down against them 
on the iouth side of Ibevern-moutli, from tlie Welsh coast 
Tijestwai'd, to the mouth of the Avon eastward; so that on 
• Of Llandaff. 


that side tliey durst not anpvliere attempt the hmd. Tlion, 
nevertheless, they stole away by night on some two occasion.^ ; 
cnce, to the east of Watchet, and another time to Porlock. 
But they were beaten on either occasion, so that few of tlu-m 
got away, except those alone who there swam out to tlie 
ships. And then they sat down, out on the island of Bradan- 
reUce, [Flat-holms,] until such time as they were quite desti- 
tute of food ; and many men died of hunger, because they 
could not obtain any food. Then they went thence to Deo- 
mod, [S. Wales,] and then out to Ireland : and this was 
during harvest. And then after that, in the same year, 
before Martinmas, king Edward went with his forces to 
Buckingham, and there sat down four weeks ; and, ere he 
went thence, he erected both the forts on either side of the 
river. And Thurkytel the earl sought to him to be his lord, 
and all the captains, and almost all the chief men who owed 
obedience to Bedford, and also many of those who owed 
obedience to Northampton. 

A. 918. But very shortly after they had become so, she died at Tarn- 
worth, twelve days before midsummer, the eighth year of her having rule 
and right lordship over the Mercians ; and her body lies at Gloucester, 
witliin the east porch of St. Peter's church. [See end of a.d, 922.] 

A. 918. This year died Ethelfled the lady of the Mercians. 

A. 919. In this year, before Martinmas, king Edward 
went with Ms forces to Bedford, and gained the town ; and 
almost all the townsmen who formerly dwelt there submitted 
to him: and he sat down there four weeks, and commanded 
the town to be built on the south side of the river before he 
went thence. 

A. 919. This year also the daughter of Ethelred, lord of the Mercians, 
was deprived of all dominion over the Mercians, and carried into Wessex, 
three weeks before mid-Avinter : she was called Elfwina. 

A. 920. In this year, before midsummer, king Edward 
went to Maldon, and built the town, and fortified it before he 
departed thence. And that same year Thurkytel the earl 
went over sea into France, together with such men as would 
Collow him, with the peace and aid of king Edward. 

A. 921. In this year, before Easter, king Edward gavo 
orders to take possession of the town at Towcester, and to 
fortify it. And again, after that, in the same year, durinj^ 
Rogation days, he commanded the town at Wiijmore to 


be built. That same summer, between Lammas and mid- 
summer, the army from Northampton and from Leicester, 
and thence north, broke the peace, and went to Towcester, 
and fought against tlie town the whole day ; and they thought 
that they should be able to take it by storm. But, neverthe- 
less, the people who were within defended it until a larger 
force came to them : and then they departed from the town 
and went away. Then, again very soon after that, they went 
out once more by night with a predatory band, and came 
upon men who were unprepared, and took no small number 
as well of men as of cattle between Burnham wood and Ayles- 
bury. At that same time went out the army from Hunting- 
don and from the East- Angles, and constructed the fortress 
at Tempsford, and abode, and built there ; and forsook the 
other at Huntingdon, and thought that from thence they 
could, by warfare and hostility, get more of the land again. 
And tliey went forth until they arrived at Bedford : and 
tlien the men who were there within went out against them, 
and fought with them and put them to flight, and slew a 
good part of them. Then again, after that, a large army 
once more drew together from East-Anglia and from Mercia, 
and went to the town at Wigmore, and beset it round 
about, and fought against it the greater part of the day, 
and took the cattle thereabout. And nevertheless, the 
men who were within the town defended it ; and then the 
army left the town and went away. Then, after that, in 
tlie same summer, much people, within king Edward's 
dominion, drew together out of the nearest towns, who could 
go tliither, and went to Tempsford, and beset the town, and 
fought against it till they took it by storm, and slew the king, 
and Toglos the earl, and Mann the earl, his son, and his 
brother, and all those who Avere there within and would de- 
f<;nd themselves; and took the others, and all that was 
therein. Then, very soon after this, much people drew 
together during harvest, as well from Kent as from Surrey 
and from Essex, and from each of the nearest towns, and 
went to Colchester, and beset the town, and fought against 
it until they mastered it, and slew all the people there within, 
and took all that was there, except the men who fled away 
over the wall. Then after that, once again during the 
«!a.»ne harvest, a large army drew together out of Eust-Anglia, 


AS well of the land-force as of the pirates whom they liad en- 
ticed to their aid : and they thought that they shoukl be able 
to avenge their wrongs. And they went to Maldon, and 
beset the town, and fought against it until more aid came to 
the help of the townsmen from without ; and then the army 
left the town and went away. And then the men from the 
town went out after them, and those also who came from 
without to their aid ; and they put the army to flight, and 
slew many hundreds of them, as well of the pirates as of 
the others. Then, very shortly after, during the same 
harvest, king Edward went with the forces of the West- 
Saxons to Passoham, and sat down there while they encom- 
passed the town at Towcester with a stone wall. And Thur- 
ferth the earl, and the captains, and all the army which owed 
obedience to Northampton, as far north as the Welland, sub- 
mitted to him, and sought to him to be their lord and pro- 
tector. And when one division of the forces went home, 
tlien another went out, and took possession of the town of 
Huntingdon, and repaired and rebuilt it, by command of 
king Edward, where it had been previously demolished ; and 
all who were left of the inhabitants of that country submitted 
to king Edward, and sought his peace and his protection. 
And after this, still in the same year, before Martinmas, king 
Edward went with the forces of the West- Saxons to Col- 
chester, and repaired the town, and rebuilt it where it had 
been before broken down; and much people submitted to 
him, as well among the East-Anglians as among the East 
Saxons, who before were under the dominion of the Danes. 
And all the army among the East-Anglians swore union 
with him, that they would all that he would, and would 
observe peace towards all to which the king should grant his 
peace, both by sea and by land. And the army which owed 
obedience to Cambridge chose him specially to be their 
lord and protector ; and confirmed it with oaths, even as he 
then decreed it. This year king Edward built the town at 
Gladmouth. This year king Sihtric slew Neil his brother. 

A. 922. In this year, between Rogation days and mid- 
summer, king Edward went with liis forces to Stamford, 
and commanded the town to be built upon the south side of 
tlie river: and all the people which owed obedience to the 
Qorthera town submitted to him, and sought to him to be 

72 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 923-925. 

their lord. And then, during the sojourn which he there 
made, Ethelfled his sister died there, at Tamworth, twelve 
days before midsummer. And then he took possession of 
the town at Tamworth ; and all the people of the land of 
Mercia, who before vv^ere subject to Ethelfled, submitted to 
him ; and the kings of the North- Welsh, Howel, and Cle- 
dauc, and Jothwel, and all the North- Welsh race, sought to 
him to be their lord. Then went he thence to Nottingham 
and took possession of the town, and commanded it to be 
repaired and occupied as well by English as by Danes. 
And all the people who were settled in Mercia, as well Dan- 
ish as English, submitted to him. 

A. 923. In this year, after harvest, king Edward went 
with his forces to Thelwall, and commanded the town to be 
built, and occupied, and manned; and commanded another 
force also of Mercians, the while that he sat there, to take 
possession of Manchester in North-humbria, and repair and 
man it. This year died archbishop Plegmund. This year 
king Reginald won York. 

A. 924. In this year, before midsummer, king Edward 
went with his forces to Nottingham, and commanded the 
town to be built on the south side of the river, over against 
the other, and the bridge over the Trent, between the two 
towns: and then he went thence into Peakland, to Bake- 
well, and commanded a town to be built nigh thereunto, 
and manned. And then chose him for father and for lord, 
the king of the Scots and the whole nation of the Scots, and 
Reginald and the son of Eadulf and all those who dwell in 
North-humbria, as well English as Danes, and North-men 
and others, and also the king of the Strath-clyde Britons, 
and all the Strath-clyde Britons. 

A. 924. This year Edward was chosen for father and for lord by the 
king of the Scots, and by the Scots, and king Reginald, and by all the 
Nuith-humbrians, and also the king of the Strath-clyde Britons, and by 
aJ the Strath-clyde Britons. 

A. 924. This year king Edward died among the Mercians at Famdon ; 
and very shortly, about sixteen days after this, Elward his son died at 
Oxford; and their bodies lie at Winchester. And Athelstan was chosen 
king by the Mercians, and consecrated at Kingston. And he gave his sister 
to Ofsae [OthoJ, son of the king of the Old-Saxona. 

A. 925. This year king Edward died, and Athelstan his 
son suc^'eeded to the kingdom. And St. Dunstan waa bora 


and Wulfhelm succeeded to tlie archbishopric of Canterbury 
■"i'liis year king Athelstan and Sihtric king of the Nortii- 
humbrians came together at Tamworth, on the 3d before the 
Kalends of February ; and Athelstan gave him his sister. 

A. 925. This year Bishop Wulflielm was consecrated. And that same 
yeai- king Edward died. 

A. 926. This year fiery lights appeared in the north part 
of the heavens. And Sihtric perished : and king Athel- 
stan obtained the kingdom of the North-liumbrians. And 
he ruled all the kings who were in this island : first, Howel 
king of the West- Welsh ; and Constantine king of the Scots ; 
and Owen king of the Monmouth people ; and Aldred, son of 
Ealdulf, of Bambrough: and they confirmed the peace by 
pledge, and by oaths, at the place which is called Eamot, 
on the 4tli before the Ides of July ; and they renounced all 
idolatry, and after that submitted to him in peace. 

A. 927. This year king Athelstan expelled king Gutli- 
frith. And this year Archbishop Wulfhelm went to Rome. 

A. 928. William succeeded to Normandy, and held it 
fifteen years. 

A. 929. 930. 

A. 93 L Tins year Brinstan was ordained bishop of Win- 
chester on the 4th before the Kalends of June ; and he held 
the bishopric two years and a half. 

A. 931. This year died Frithstan bishop of Winchester, and Brinstan 
was blessed in his place. 

A. 932. This year died bishop Frithstan. 

A. 933. This year Edwin the etlieling was drowned at 
sea. This year king Athelstan went into Scotland, as well 
with a land army as with a fleet, and ravaged a great part 
of it. And bishop Brinstan died at Winchester on liie 
feast of A 11- Hallows. 

A. 934. This year bishop Elphege succeeded to th«j 
bishopric of Winchester. 

A. 935. 936. 

A. 937. 
Here Athelstan, kins:. 

ot' earls the lord, 

(tf heroes the bracelet -giver, 

and his brother eke, 

Edmund etheling, 



in battle won 

with edges of swords 

near Brumby. 

The board-walls they clove, 

they hewed the war-lindens, 

Haraora lafan' 
offspring of Edward, 
such was their noble nature 
from their ancestors, 
that they in battle oft 
'gainst every foe 
the land defended, 
boards and homes. 
The foe they crushed, 
the Scottish people 
and the shipmen 
fated feU. 

The field Mseniede' 
with warriors' blood, 
since the sun up 
at morning-tide, 
mighty planet, 
glided o'er grounds, 
God's candle bright, 
the eternal Lord's, 
till the noble creature 
sank to her settle. 
There lay many a warrior 
by javelins strewed, 
northern man 
over shield shot ; 
so the Scots eke, 
weary, war-sad. 
West- Saxons onwards 
throughout the day, 
in bands, 

pursued the footsteps 
of the loathed nations. 
They hewed the fugitives 
behind, amain, 
with swords mill-sharp. 

Mercians refused not 
the hard hand-play 
to any heroes 
who with Anlaf, 
over the ocean, 
in the ship's bosom, 
this land sought 
felted to the fight. 
Five lay 

on the battle-stead, 
youthful kings, 
by swords in slumber laid: 
so seven eke 
of Anlaf 's earls ; 
of tlie army countless, 
shipmen and Scots. 
There was made flee 
the North-men's chieftain, 
by need constrained, 
to the ship's prow 
with a little band. 
The bark drove afloat : 
the king dejiarted 
on the fallow flood, 
his life preserved. 
So there eke the sage 
came by flight 
to his country north, 
hoary warrior . 
He had no cause to exult 
I in the communion of swords. 
Here was his kindred baud 
of friends o'erthrown 
on the folk-stead, 
in battle slain ; 
and his son he left 
on the slaughter-place, 
mangled with wounds, 
young in the fight : 
he had no cause to boast. 



hero grizzly-haired, 

of the bill-cLishing, 

the okl deceiver ; 

nor Aidat" the moor, {^mies ; 

with the remnant of their ar- 

they had no cause to laugh 

that they in war's works 

the better men were 

in the battle-stead, 

at the conflict of banners, 

meeting of spears, 

concourse of men, 

trailic of weapons ; [field 

that they on the slaughter- 

with Edward's 

oir>pring played. 

The North-men departed 
in their nailed barks ; 
bloody relic of darts, 
on roaring ocean 
o'er the deep water 
Dublin to seek, 
again Ireland, 
shamed in mind. 

So too the brothers, 
both together, 
king and etheling, 
their country sought. 
West- Saxons' land, 

in the war exulting. 

They left behind them, 

the corse to devour, 

the sallowy kite 

and the swarthy raven 

with horned nib, 

and the dusky ' pada,* 

erne white-tailed, 

the corse to enjoy, 

greedy war-hawk, 

and the grey beast, 

wolf of the wood. 

Carnage greater has not betsn 

in this island 

ever yet 

of people slain, 

before this, 

by edges of swords, 

as books us say, 

old writers, 

since from the east hither, 

Angles and Saxons 

came to land, 

o'er the broad seas 

Britain sought, 

mighty war-smiths, 

the Welsh o'ercame, 

earls most bold, 

this earth obtained. 

A. 937. This year king Athelstan and Edmund his brother led a forcf 
to Brumby, and mere fouglit a,ii;ainst Anlaf ; and, Christ helping, ha^ 
the victory: and they there slew five kings and seven earls, 

A. 938. 939. 

A. 940. This year king Athelstan died at Gloucester on 
the 6th before the Kalends of November, about forty-one years, 
except one day, after king Alfred died. And Edmund the 
etheling, his brother, succeeded to the kingdom, and he was 
then eighteen years of age ; and king Athelstan reigne-d 
♦burteen years and ten weeks. Then was Wulfhelra arch- 
biniiop in Kent. 

A. 941, This year the North-humbrians were faLw to 

76 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a. i>. 942-945. 

their plighted troth, and chose Anlaf of Lreland to be tliei! 


Here Edmund king, 
ruler of Angles, 
protector of men, 
^Nlercia ol>tained, 
dear deed-doer, 
as the Dor flows, 
course of the white-well, 
and Huraber's river, 
broad sea-stream. 
Five towns, 
and Lincoln, 
and Nottingham, 

so Stamford eke, 

and Derby, 

to Danes were erew^hiie, 

under North-men, 

by need constrained, 

of heathen men 

in captive chains, 

a long time ; 

until again redeemed them, 

for his worthiness, 

the bulwark of warriors, 

offspring of Edward, 

Edmund king. 

A. 941. This year kins: Edmund received king at baptism ; and 
that same year, a good long space after, he received king Reginald at the 
bishop's hands. 

A. 942. This year king *Anlaf died. 

A. 943. This year Anlaf stormed Tamworth, and great 
carnage -was on either hand ; and the Danes had the victory, 
and much booty they led away with them : there during the 
pillage was Wulfrun taken. This year king Edmund be- 
sieged king Anlaf and archbishop Wulfstan in Leicester ; 
and he would have taken them, were it not that they broke 
out by night from the town. And, after that, Anlaf acquired 
king Edmund's friendship ; and king Edmund then re- 
ceived king Anlaf at baptism, and he royally gifted him. 
And that same year, after a good long time, he received king 
Reginald at the bishop's hands. This year king l-^dmund 
delivered Glastonbury to St. Dunstan, where he afterwards 
became the first abbat. 

A. 944. This year king Edmund subdued all Noi-thnm- 
berland under his power, and expelled two kings, Anlaf. 
gon of Sihtric, and Reginald, son of Guthferth. 

A. 945. This year king Edmund ravaged all Cumber- 
land, and granted it all to Malcolm king of the Scots, on the 

* See Hen. Huntingdon and Simeon of llurhnm. A. f'41 There were 
lev.Tii! chiefs of that name at this period : Anlaf the son of (jiutlUerthj 
Afvl^ the ion of Siliiricj uud Anlaf Cuirau, mentioned A. 948. 


condition, that lie should be his fellow-worker as well by sea 
as bj land. 

A. 946. This year kinc^ Edmund died on St. Augustine's 
mass-day. That was widely known how he his days ended : 
that Leofa stabbed him at Puckle-church. And Aeltieda 
at Damerham, Elgar's daughter, the ealdorman, was then 
liis queen : and he had the kingdom six years and a hali". 
And then after him his brother Edred the etheling suc- 
ceeded to the kingdom, and subdued all Northumberland 
under his power : and the Scots gave him oaths, that they 
would all that he would. 

A. 947. This year king Edred came to Tadden's-clifF, 
and there Wulfstan the archbishop and all the North-hum- 
brian " witan " plighted their troth to the king : and within 
a little while they belied it all, both pledge and also oaths. 

A. 948. This year king Edred ravaged all Northum- 
berland, because they had taken Eric to be their king : and 
then, during the pillage, was the great minster burned at 
Ripon that St. Wilfrid built. And as the king went 
homewards, then the army of York overtook him : the rear 
of the king's forces was at Chesterford ; and there they 
made great slaughter. Then was the king so wroth that he 
would have marched his forces in again and wholly destroyed 
the land. When the North-humbrian "witan" understood 
that, then forsook they Eric, and made compensation for 
the deed with king Edred. 

A. 949. This year Anlaf Curran came to Northumber- 

A. 950. 

A. 95 L This year died Elphege bishop of Winchester, on 
St. Gregory's mass-day. This same blessed St. Dunstan. . . . 

A. 952. In this year king Edred commanded archbishop 
Wulfstan to be brought into the fastness at Jedburgh, 
because he had been oft accused to the king : and in this 
year also the king commanded great slaughter fo be made in 
the town of Thetford, in revenge of the abbat Edelm, whom 
they had before slain. This year the North-humbrians ex- 
pelled king Anlaf, and received Eric, Harold's son. 

A. 953. 

A. 954. This year the North-humbrians expelled Eric, 
and Edi-ed obtained the kingdom of the North-humbriaii!i, 



Thh year archbishop Wulfstan again obtained a bishoprio 
at Dorchester. 

A. 955. This 3^ear died king Edred on St. Clement's 
mass-day, at Frorae, and he rests in the Old-minster [Win- 
chester] ; and he reigned nine years and a half. And then 
Kd\vy succeeded to the kingdom, king Edmund's and St. 
Elfgiva'a son. And he banished St. Dunstan out of the 

A. 955. And Edwy succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and 
Ed„Mr his brother succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians : and they 
were the sons of King Edmund and of S. Elfj;iva. 

A. 956. 

A. 957. This year died Wulfstan archbishop of York, on 
the 1 7th before the Kalends of January, and he was buried at 
Oundle. And in the same year abbat Dunstan was driven 
away over sea. This year Edgar the etheling succeeded to 
the kingdom of the Mercians. 

A. 958. In this year arclibishop Odo* separated king 
Edwy and Elfgiva, because they were too nearly rehited. 
This year died king Edwy on tlie Kalends of October ; and 
Edgar his brother succeeded to the kingdom, as well of tlie 
West-Saxons as of the Mercians, and of the North-hum- 
brians ; and he was then sixteen years of age. 

In his days 

it prospered well, 

and God him granted 

that he dwelt in peace 

the while that he lived ; 

and he did as behoved him, 

diligently he earned it. 

lie upreared God's glory wide, 

and loved God's law, 

and bettered the public peace, 

mo.^t of the kings 

who were before him 

in man's memory. 

And God him eke so helped, 

that kings and earls 

gladly to him bowed, 

taid were submissive 

to that that he willed ; 

and without war 

he ruled all 

that himself would. 

He was wide 

tiiroughout nations 

greatly honoured, 

because he honoured 

God's name earnestly, 

and God's law pondered 

much and oft, 

and God's glory reared 

wide and far, 

and wisely counselled, 

most oft, and ever, 

for God and for tlu: world, 

of all Ids people. 

Of Canterbury. 


One misdeed he did 

and harmful people 

allured to this land. 
But God grant him 
that his good deeds 
be more availing 
than his misdeeds, 
for his soul's protection 
on the lono;some course. 


all too much 
that he foreign 
vices loved, 
and heathen customs 
within this land 
brought too oft, 
and outlandish men 
liither enticed, 

A. 959. This year Edgar sent after St. Dunstan, and 
gave him the bishopric at Worcester ; and afterwards the 
bishopric at London. 

A. 960. 

A. 961. This year departed Odo the Good, archbishop ; 
and St. Dunstan succeeded to the archbishopric. 

A. 962. This year died Elfgar, the king's kinsman, in 
I^evonshire, and his body rests at Wilton. And king Sif- 
ferth killed himself, and his body lies at Wimborne. And 
then, within the year, there was a great mortality, and the 
great fever was in London ; and Paul's minster was burnt, 
imd that same year was again built up. In tliis same year 
Atliehnod the mass-priest went to Rome, and there died, on 
the 18th before the Kalends of September. 

A. 963. This year died Wulfstan the deacon, on Childer- 
mass-day, and after that died Gyric the mass-priest. In this 
same year abbat Ethelwold* succeeded to the bishopric at 
\\'inchester, and he was consecrated on the vigil of St. 
Andrew : it was Sunday that day. In the year after he was 
consecrated, then made he many minsters, and drove the 
clerks out of the bishopric, because they would not observe 
any rule, and he set monks there. He made there two abba- 
cies ; one of monks, one of nuns ; all which was within 
Winchester. Afterwards, then came he to the king, Edgar, 
and begged of him that he would give him all the minsters 
which heathen men had formerly broken down, because he 
would restore them: and the king cheerfully granted it. Ajid 
then the bishop came first to Ely, w^here St. Etheldrida lies, 
and caused the minster to be made : then he gave it to one 
of his monks, who was named Britnoth. He then conse- 
crated him abbat, a:id there set monks to serve God where 
« Of Abingdon, 


previously had been nuns : he bought then many villages 
of the king, and made it very rich. After that cams bishop 
Etlielwold to the minsrer which was called jMedeshamstede, 
which formerly had lieeii destroyed by heathen men : he 
found nothing there but old walls and wild woods. There 
found he, hidden in the old wails, wa-itings that abbat 
Hedda had erewhile written, how king Wulfhere and 
Ethelred his brother had built it, and how they had freed it 
against king and against bishop, and against all secular ser- 
vices, and how the pope Agatlio had confirmed the same by 
his rescript, and the archbishop Deus-dedit. Then caused 
he the minster to be built ; and set there an abbat, who was 
called Adulf, and caused monks to be there where before 
was nothing. Then came he to the king, and caused him 
to look at the writings wdiich before were found ; and the 
king answered then and said : 

" I, Edgar, grant and give to-day, before God and before 
the archbishop Dunstan, freedom to 8t. Peter's minster, 
Lledeshamstede, from king and from bishop : and all the 
villages which lie thereto ; that is to say, Eastfield, and 
Dodthorp, and Eye, and Fasten. And thus I free it, that 
no bishop have there any command, without the abbat of the 
minster. And I give the town which is called Oundle, with 
all which thereto lieth, that is to say, that which is called 
*the Eight-hundreds,' and market and toll, so freely, that 
neither king, nor bishop, nor earl, nor sheriff, have there 
any command, nor any man except the abbat alone, and him 
whom he thereto appointeth. And I give to Christ and St. 
Peter, and through the prayer of bishop Etlielwold, these 
lands ; that is to say, Barro, Warmington, Ashton, Ketter- 
ing, Castor, Eylesworth, Walton, Witherington, Eye, Thorp ; 
and one moneyer in Stamford. These lands, and all the 
others that belong to the minster, them declare I free : that 
is, with sack and sock, toll and team, and infangthief ; these 
rights, and all others, them declare I the shire of Christ and St. 
Peter. And I give the two parts of Whittlesey-mere, wnth the 
waters and with the wears and fens, and so through Meer- 
lade straight to the water which is called Nen, and so east- 
ward to King's-delf. And I will that a market be in the 
game town, and that no other be between St:imlbrd and Hun 
tingdon. And I will that the toll be thus given : first, from>3. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 81 

Wliittlesey-mere all as far as the king's toll of Norman-cross- 
hundred, and then back again iVom Whittlesey-niere, through 
Meerhide, straight to the Nen, and so as the water runneth 
to Crovvland, and from Crowland to Must, and from Must 
to King's-delii and to Whittlesey-mere. And I will that all 
liberties, and all the remissions tliat my predecessors have 
given, that they stand ; and I sign and confirm it with 
Christ's rood-token." y^ 

Then Dunstan the archbishop of Canterbury answered, 
and said : "I grant that all the things which here are given 
and spoken of, and all the things which thy predecessors and 
mine have conceded, those will I that they stand ; and who- 
soever this breaketh, then give I him the curse of God, and 
of all saints, and of all ordained heads, and of myself, unless 
he come to repentance. And I give, in acknowledgment, tc 
St. Peter, my mass-hackel, and my stole, and my ' reef,' for 
the service of Chi-ist." "I, Oswald, archbishop of York, 
assent to all these words by tlie holy rood which Christ suf- 
fered on.">^ "I, Ethelwold, bishop, bless all who shall 
observe this ; and I excommunicate all who shall break this, 
unless he come to repentance." Here was Elfstan bishop, 
Athulf bishop, and Eskwi abbat, and Osgar abbat, and 
Ethelgar abbat, and Elfere the ealdorman, Ethelwin the 
ealdorman, Britnoth ; Oslac the ealdorman, and many other 
great men : and all assented to it, and all signed it with 
Christ's cross, y^ This was done after the birth of our Lord 
nine hundred and seventy-two years, of the king's reign the 
sixteenth year. 

Then the abbat Aldulf bought lands, numerous and many, 
then greatly enriched the minster withal ; and then was 
he there so long as until the archbishop Oswald of York 
was dead, and then he was chosen archbishop. And then, 
soon, another abbat was chosen of the self-same minster, who 
was called Kenulf : he was afterwards bishop at Winchester. 
And he first made the wall about the minster : then gave lie 
that to name Peterborough, which before was calLed Medes- 
hamstede: he was there until he was appointed bishop 
at Winchester. Then anotlier abbat was chosen of the self- 
same minster, who was called Elfsy : Elfsy was then abbat, 
from that time, fifty years. He took up St. Kyneburg and 
bt. Kyneswith, who lay at Ctistor. and St. Tibba, who lay at 

82 THE ANGLO-SAXON CIIPwONICLE. a.d. 90:^972. 

Rvhall, and brought them to Peterborough, and made aa 
oiiering of them all to St. Peter in one day ; and pre;:>erved 
them all the while he was there. 

A. 963. Tliis year, by king Edgar, St. Ethelwold was chosen to the 
hishoprick at Winchester. And the archbishop of Canterbury, St. Dun- 
Btan, consecrated him bishop on the first Sunday of Advent ; that vvaa on 
tlie 3rd before the Kalends of December. 

A. 964. This year king Edgar expelled the priests at 
Winchester from the Old-minster and from the New-mi iister, 
and from Chertsey, and from Milton, and filled them with 
monks ; and he appointed abbat Ethelgar abbat to the New- 
mi nster, and Ordbert to Chertsey, and Cyneward to Milton. 

A. 9G4. This year were the canons driven out of the OUI-minster by 
kiny; Edgar, and also from the New-minster, and from Chertsey and from 
Milton ; and he appointed thereto monks and abbats : to the New-minster 
Eihelgar, to Chertsey Ordbert, to Milton Cyneward. 

A. 965. In this year king Edgar took Elfrida for his 
queen ; she was daughter of Ordgar the ealdorman. 

A. 966. This year Thored, Gunner's son, ravaged West- 
moreland. And that same year Oslac obtained an ealdordom. 

A. 967. 

A. 968. In this year king Edgar ordered all Thanet- 
land to be ravaged. 

A. 969. 970. 

A. 971. This year died archbishop Oskytel : he was first 
consecrated bishop of Dorchester, and afterwards of York ; 
by favour of king Edred, and of all his 'witan,* he was 
consecrated archbishop ; and he was a bishop twenty two 
years; and he died on the mass-night of All-Hallows, ten 
days before Martin-mass, at Thame. And abbat Thurkytel 
liis kinsman, carried the bishop's body to Bedford, because 
he was then, at that time, abbat there. 

A. 972. This year died Edmund the etheling, and his 
body lies at Rumsey. 

A. 972. This year Edgar the etheling was consecrated king at Bath, 
on Pentecost's mass-day, on the .5th before the Ides of May, the thirteenth 
year since he had obtained the kingdom ; and he was then one less thati 
thirty years of age. And soon after that, the king led all his ahip-forcea 
to Chester ; and there came to meet him six kings, and they all plighteU 
their trath to him, that they would be his fellow- workers by sea and bj 



A. 973. 
Here was Edgar, 
ruler of Angles, 
in full assembly, 
li allowed king, 
at the old city 
Akemanscester ; 
but it the islanders, 
beorns, by another word, 
name Bath. 
There was much bliss 
on that blessed day 
to all occasioned, 
which cliildren of men 
name and call 
Pentecost's day. 
There was a heap of priests ; 
of monks a large band, 
as I have heard, 
of sage ones, gathered : 
and then agone was 
ten hundred years, 
told in numbers, 
from the birth- tide 
of the glorious King, 
Pastor of light, 
but that there remaining 
then still was, 
of yearly-tale, 
as writings say, 
sev^en and twenty: 
so nigh had to the Victor- lord 
a thousand run out 
wlien this befel. 
And himself, Edmund's 
offspring, had 
nine and twenty, 
guardian 'gainst evil works, 
years in the world 
waeu thi« was done, 

• Of 

and then in the tlnititth, was 

hallowed ruler. 
A. 974. 
A. 975. 

Here, ended 

the joys of earth, 

Edgar, of Angles king 

chose him another li"fht 
I beauteous and winsome 

and left this frail, 

this barren life. 

Children of men name, 

men on the earth, 

every where, that month, 

in this land, 

those who erewhile were 

in the art of numbers 

rightly taught, 

July month, 

when the youth departed, 

on the eighth day, 

Edgar, from life, 

bracelet giver to heroes. 

And then his son succeeded 

to the kingdom, 

a child un-waxen, 

of earls the prince. 

to whom was Edward name. 

And him, a glorious chief. 

ten days before, 

departed from Britain, 

the good bishop,* 

through nature's course, 

to whom was Cyneward nam at 

Then was in Mercia, 

as I have heard, 

widely and every where* 
I the glory of the Lord 
I laid low on earth : 
I many were expelled. 




»age servants of i.^ofl ; 

tliat was much grief 

to him wlio in his breast bore 

a burning love 

of the Creator, in his mind. 

Then was tl le Source of wonders 

too oft contemned ; 

the Victor-lord, 

heaven's Ruler. [through 

Then men his law broke 

and then was eke driven out, 

beloved hero, 

Oslac from this land, 

o'er rolling waters, 

o'er the ganet's-bath ; 

hoary-haired hero, 

wise and word-skilled, 

o'er the water's throng, 

o'er the whale's domain. 

( of home bereaved. 
And then was seen, 
high in the heavens, 
a star in the firmament, 
which lofty-souled 
men, sage minded, 
call widely, 
cometa by name ; 
men skilled in arts, 
wise truth-bearers. 
Throughout mankind was 
the Lord's vengeance 
widely known, 
famine o'er earth. 
That again heaven's Guardian, 
bettered. Lord of angels, 
gave again bliss 
to each isle-dweller, 
through earth's fruits. 

A. 975. The 8th before tlie Ides of i honoured far, 


Here Edgar died, 
ruler of Angles, 
West- Saxons' joy, 
and Mercians* protector. 

Known was it widely 
throughout many nations. 
• Thaet' offspring of Edmund, 
o*er the ganet's-bath. 

Kings him widely 
bowed to the king, 
as was his due by kind. 

No fleet was so daring, 
nor army so strong, 
that 'mid the English nation 
took from him aught, 
the while that the noble king 
ruled on his throne. 

And this year Edward, Edgar's son, succeeded to the kingdom ; and then 
Boon, in the same year, during harvest, appeared ' cometa' the star ; and 
then came in the fol'owinir year a very great famine, and very manifold 
commotions among the English people. 

whom Edgar, king, ordered crcwhile 
the holy bishop 

In his days, 

for his youth, 

God's gainsay ere 

God's law broke ; 

Eldfere, ealdorman, 

and othw^ many ; 

and rule monastic qiiashed, 

and minstei-s dissolved, 

and monks drove out, 

and God's servants put do^vn, 

Ethelwold to stablish ; 

and widows they plundered, 

many times and oft : 
^ and many unrighteonsnessee, 

and evil imjust-deeds 
j arose up afterwards . 
j and ever after that 
' it greatly grew in evil. 

KaA at that time also, was Oslac thcgreut earl banished from EogiAnd. 


A- 976. 'I Ms year was the great famine among the Enq^- 
lish nation. 

A. 977. This year, after Easter, was the great council at 
Kirtlington ; and there died bishop Sideman, by a sudden 
death, on the 2d before the Kalends of jMay. He wa^ bisliop in 
Devonsliire, and he desired tliat tlie resting-place of his body 
should be at Crediton, at his episcopal seat. Tlien commanded 
king Edward and archbishop Dunstan that he should be borne 
to St. Mary's minster, wliich is at Abingdon : and so too was 
it done : and he is moreover honourably buried on the north 
side, in St. Paul's chapel. 

A. 978. Li this year all the chief ' witan' of the English 
nation fell at Calne from an upper cl] amber, except the holy 
archbishop Dunstan, who alone supported himself upon a 
beam ; and there some were grievously maimed, and some 
did not escape wnth life. In this year was King Edward 
martyred ; and Etiielred the etheling, his brother, succeeded 
to the kingdom, and he was in the same year consecrated kv:g. 
In that year died Alfwold ; he was bishop of Dorset, and his 
body lies in the minster at Sherborne. 

A. 979. In this year was Ethelred consecrated king at 
Kingston, on the Sunday, fourteen days after Easter; and 
there were at his consecration two archbishops, and ten suffra- 
gan-bishops. That same year was seen a bloody cloud, often- 
times, in the likeness of hre ; and it w^as mostly apparent 
at midnight, and so in various beams was coloured : when it 
began to dawn, then it glided away. 

A. 979. This year was king Edward slain at even-tide, at Cni-fe-cate, 
on the 15th before the Kalends of April, and then was he buried at \V?re- 
ham, without any kind of kingly honours. 

There has not been 'mid Angles 

a worse deed done 

than this was, 

since they first 

Britain-land sought. 

Men him murdered, 

but God him glorified. 

He was in life 

an earthly king ; 

he is now after death 

a heavenly saint. 

Hmi would not his earthly 

k.m*men a venire, 

but Ixim hath heavenly Father 

greatly avenged. 

The earthly murderers 

would his memory 

on eartli blot out, 

but the lofty A venger 

hath his memory 

in the heavens 

and on earth wide-spread. 

They who would not ere while 

to his living 

body bow down, 

they now humbly 

on knees bend 

to his deaA hones. 

86 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICt.E. a.d. gso^m 

and their councils, 
are like nought 
'gainst God's resolves. 

Now we may understand 
that men's wisdom 
And their devices, 

This year Ethelred succeeded to the kingdom ; and he was very qujcKly 
after that, with much joy of the English witan, consecrated king at Kingston. 

A. 980. In this year abbat Ethelgar* was consecrated 
bishop on the 6th before the Nones of May, to the episcopal seat 
at Selsey. And in the same year was Southampton ravaged 
by a ship-force, and the most part of the townsmen shiin, and 
led captive. And that same year was Thanet-land ravag(^ 
by a sliip force, and tlie most part of the townsmen slain, 
and led captive. And that same year was Legecester-shire 
rChester] ravaged by a northern ship-force. In this year St. 
Dunstan and Alfere the ealdorman fetched the holy king^s 
body, vSt. Edward's, from Wareham, and bore it with much 
solemnity to Shaftsbury. 

A. 981. In this year St. Petroc's-stowe [Padstow] wa3 
ravaged ; and that same year was much harm done every- 
where by the sea-coast, as well among the men of Devon as 
among the Welsh. And in the same year died Elfstan 
bishop of Wiltshire, and his body lies in the minster at 
Abingdon ; and Wulfgar then succeeded to the bishopric. 
And in the same year died abbat Womaref at Ghent. 

A. 981. This year came first the seven ships, and ravaged Southampton. 

A. 982. In this year landed among the men of Dorset 
three ships of pirates ; and they ravaged in Portland. That 
same year London was burnt ; and in the same year died two 
ealdormen, Ethelmer in Hampshire, and Edwin in Sussex ; 
and Ethelmer's body lies at Winchester, in the New-minster, 
and Edwin's in the minster at Abingdon. This same year 
died two abbesses in Dorset, Herelufu at Shaftesbury, and 
Wulfwina at Wareham. And that same year went Otho the 
Koman emperor to Greek-land [Calabria], and there met he a 
large force of Saracens, coming up from the sea, and they would 
then go plundering the Christian people. And then the Empe- 
ror fought against them, and there was great slaughter made 
on either hand ; and the emperor had possession of the place oi 
tarnage : and nevertheless he was there much harassed be- 
fore he turned thence : and as he homeward went, then died 

♦ Of New-minstet. t Of St. Peter's. 


his brother's son, who was named Otho, and he was Jjeo 
dulf the etheling's son, and Leodulf was the elder Otho's 
»on and king Edward's daughter's son. 

A. 983. This year died Alfere the ealdorman, and 
Alfi'ic succeeded to the same ealdorman-ship.* And Pope 
Benedict [VH.] died. 

A. 984. This year died the benevolent bishop of Winches- 
ter, Ethelwold, father of monks, on the Kalends of August ; 
and the consecration of the succeeding bishop, Elphege [II.], 
wlio by another name was called Godwin, was on the 14th 
before the Kalends of November ; and he took the episcoj)al 
seat at Winchester, on the day of the two apostles Simon 
and Jude. 

A. 985. This year was Alfric the eoldorman banished the 
land. And in the same year was Edwin consecrated abbat 
of the minster at Abingdon. 

A. 986. This year the king laid waste the bishopric of 
Rochester. Tliis year first came the great murrain among 
cattle in the English nation. 

A. 987. 

A. 988. This year was Watchet ravaged, and Goda, the 
Devonshire thane, slain, and with him much slaughter made. 
And this year departed the holy archbishop Dunstan, and 
passed to the heavenly life : and bishop Ethelgarf succeeded, 
after him, to the archbisliopric ;J and little while after that 
he lived, but one year and three months. 

A. 989. 

A. 990. This year Siric was consecrated archbishop. § 
and aftPl■^v Hrds went to Rome for his pall. And abbat Ead- 
win|| dic<i ; and abbat "Wulfgar succeeded to the abbacy. 

A. 991. This year was Ipswich ravaged; and after that, 
very shortly, was Britnoth the ealdorman slain at Maldon. 
And in that year it was decreed that tribute, ^or the fii'st 
time, should be given to the Danish-men, on account of the 
great terror which they caused by the sea-coast ; that was at 
first ten thousand pounds : this counsel was first given by 
archbishop Siric. 

A. 992. This year Oswald the holy archbishop^ left -"his, 
and passed to the heavenly life: and Ethel win the eald^oi'' 

« Me-oiK- f OfSelsey. j Of Canterburv 

i Oi Canterbury. 1| Of Abingdon. % Of York. 

88 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 992-993. 

man* died in the same year. Then decreed the king and 
all his witan that all the ships which were worth anytliing 
should be gathered together at London. And the king then 
committed the forces to the leading of Elfric the ealdorman, 
and of Thorod the earl, and of bishop Elfstan,f and of 
bishop Escwj;J and they were to try if they could any 
where betrap the army about. Then sent the ealdorman 
Elfric and directed the army to be warned ; and then during 
the night of which they should have joined battle by day, 
then fled he by night from the forces, to his great disgrace : 
and the army then escaped, except one ship, whose crew 
was there slain. And then the ships from East-Anglia, and 
from London met the army, and there tliey made great 
slaughter of them ; and took the ship, all armed and equip- 
ped, in which the ealdorman was. And then after the de- 
cease of archbishop Oswald, abbat Aldulf, of Peterborough, 
succeeded to the bishopric of York, and of Worcester ; and 
Kenulf to the abbacy of Peterborough. 

A. 992. This year Oswald the blessed archbishop died, and Abbat 
Eadulf succeeded to York and to Worcester. And this year the king and 
all his witan decreed that all the ships which were worth anytliing sliould he 
gathered together at London, in order that they might try if they could 
any where betrap the army from without. But yElfric the ealdonnan, one 
of those in whom the king had most confidence, directed the army to be 
warned; and in the night, as they should on the morrow have joined battle, 
the self-same iElfric fled from the forces; and then the axmy escaped. 

A. 993. In this year was Bambrough entered by storm, 
and much booty there taken. And after that the army came 
to the mouth of the Humber, and there wrought much evil, 
as well in Lindsey as in Northumbria. Then a very large 
force was gathered together ; and as they should have joined 
battle, then the leadei's, first of all, began the flight; that 
was Frene, and Godwin, and Frithgist. In tliis year the 
king ordered Elfgar, son of Elfric the ealdorman, to be 

A. 993. In this year came Olave with ninety-three ships to Staines, and 
ravaged there about, and then went thence to Sandwich, and so thence to 
IjKswicli, and that ail over-ran; and so to Maldon. And there liritnoth 
the cAidornian came against tliem with his forces, and fought against them: 
and they there slew the etildorman, and had possession of tlie place of 

• Of E. Anglia. + Of London. $ Of Dor.he8t«r. 


ciiniHi^e. Ami ;irttT that jieiice wjm made with them; and hnn [Anlat ) 
the king afterwards received at the bishop's hands, through the instruclinn 
of Siric bishop of the Kentish-men, and of ^Iphtge [II.] of Winche»t<.>r. 

A. 994. In this year came Olave and Sweyn to London, 
on the nativity of St. Mary, with ninety-four ships; and 
they then continued fit^liting stoutly against the city, and 
would also have set fire to it. But they there sustained 
more harm and evil than they ever supposed that any citizens 
would be able to do unto them. But the holy mother 
of God, on that day, shewed her mercy to the citizens 
and delivered them from their foes. And they then went 
tlience, and wrought the utmost evil that ever any army 
could do, by burning, and plundering, and by man-slaying, 
both by the sea-coast and among the East- Saxons, and in 
the land of Kent, and in Sussex, and in Hampshire. And 
at last they took to themselves horses, and rode as far as 
they would, and continued doing unspeakable evil. Then 
the king and his witan decreed that they should be sent to, 
and promised tribute and food, on condition that they should 
cease from their plundering : which terms they accepted. 
And then all the army came to Southampton, and there 
took up their winter-quarters: and there they were vic- 
tualled from all the realm of the West- Saxons, and they 
were paid sixteen thousand pounds of money. Then the 
king sent bishop Elpliege [II ]* and Ethelwerd the ealdorman 
after king Olave, and the while, hostages were delivered to 
the ships; and they then led Olave with much worship to 
the king at Andover. And king Ethelred received him at 
the bishop's hands, and royally gifted him. And then Olave 
made a covenant with him, even as he also fulfilled, that he 
never again would come hostilely to the English nation. 

A. 995. In this year appeared *cometa,' the star, and 
archbishop Sigic died: and Alfric bishop of Wiltshire! 
was chosen J on Easter-day, at Amef^bury, by king Ethelred 
and by all his witan. This Alfric was a very wise man, so 
that there was no sager man in England. Then went Alfric 
to his arcliiepiscopal seat ; and when he came thither he was 
received by those men in orders who were most unacceptable 
to him, that was, by clerks. And soon (he sent for) all the 
wisest men he anywhere knew of, and also the old men who 

• Of Winchester. t Ai\erward« Saliabu.-j. I To Cantcrbuiy. 


tverc able to say the soothest how each thing had been in 
this land in the days of their elders; in addition to what 
himself had learned from books and from wise men. Him 
told the very old men, as well clergy as laity, that their 
elders had told them how it had been established by law 
so{m after St. Augustine came to this land. When Augus- 
tine had obtained the bishopric in the city,* then was he 
archbishop over all king Ethelbert's kingdom, as it is re- 
lated in Historia Anglorumf make (a bishop's) see l)y 

the king's aid in ... . was begun by the old Romans ... and 
to sprout forth. In that company the foremost were Mel- 
li tus, Justus, Paulinus, Rufinianus. By these sent the blesst-d 
pope the pall, and therewith a letter, and instruction how he 
should consecrate bishops, and in which place in Britain he 
should seat them. And to the king (also) he sent letters 
and many worldly gifts of divers things. And the churches 
which they had got ready he commanded to be consecrated in 
the name of our Lord and Saviour Christ and St. Mary; 
and for himself there fix a dwelling-place, and for all his 
after-followers; and that he (should) place therein men of 
the same order that he had sent thither, and of which he 

himself was, and also that each monks who should 

fill the archi episcopal seat at Canterbury, and that be ever 
observed by God's leave and blessing and by St. Peter's, and 
by all who came after him. When this embassy came again 
to king Egelbert and to Augustine, they were very pleased 
with such instruction. And the archbishop then conse- 
crated the minster in Christ's name and St. Mary's, (on) 
the day which is called the mass-day of the two martyrs, 
Primus et Felicianus, and there within placed monks all as 
St. Gregory commanded : and they God's service continently 
performed ; and from the same monks bishops were taken for 

each as thou mayst read in Historia Anglorum. J Then 

was archbishop Alfric very blithe, that he had so many wit- 
nesses (who) stood best at that time with the king. Still 
more, the same witan who were with the archbishop said: 
Thus also we .... monks have continued at Christ-Church 
during Augustine's days, and during Laurentius', Mellitus*, 
Justus', Honorius', Deusdedit, Theodore's, Berthwold's, Tat» 
wine's, Nothelm's, Cuthbert's, Bregwine's, Lambert's, . . , . 
Cantertur/. f Bedoi b. L c. 25. * Bede, b. i. c. 33^ 


i\ thelixrd's, Wulfred's, Theologild's. But the (first) year whea 
Ceoliioth came to the archbishopric, there was such a mor- 
tidity that there remained no more than five monks within 
Christ-Church. During all his time there was war and sor- 
row in this Land, so that no man could think of anything else 

but Now, God be thanked, it is in the king's power 

and thine, whether they may be longer there within, because 
they (might) never better be brouglit thereout than now may 
be done, if it is the king's will and thine. The archbishop 
then, without any staying, with all (these) men, went anon 
to the king and showed liim all, so as we here before have 
related. Then was the king very glad (at these) tidings 
and said to the archbishop and to the others, 'It seemeth 
advisable to me that thou shouldst go first of all to Rome 
after thy (pall, and that) thou show to the pope all this, and, 
after that, act by his counsel:' And they all answered, that 
that was the best counsel. When (the priests) heai'd this, 
then resolved they that they should take two from amon^ 
themselves and send to the pope ; and they should ofier him 
great gifts and silver, on condition that he should give them 
the arch(-pall). But when they came to Rome, then would 
not the pope do that, because they brought him no letter 
either from the king or from the people, and commanded 
them to go, lo ! where they would. (So soon as) the priests 
had gone thence, came archbishop Alfric to Rome, and the 
pope received Ifim with mucn worship, and commanded him 
on the morrow to perform mass at St. Peter's altar, and the 
pope himself put on him his own pall, and greatly honoured 
him. When this was done, the archbishop began telling the 
pope all about the clerks, how it had happened, and how 
they were within the minster at his archbishopric. And 
the pope related to him again how the priests had come to 
him, and offered great gifts, in order that he should give 
them the paU. And the pope said, * Go now to England 
again with God's blessing, and St. Peter's and mine ; and as 
thou comest home, place in thy minster men of that order 
which St. Gregorius commanded Augustine therein to place, 
by God's command, and St. Peter's and mine.' Then the 
archbishop with this returned to England. As soon as he 
came home, he entered his archiepiscopal seat, and aft<ir tliat 
went to the (king) and the king and all his people thanked 

92 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a. d. 996-999. 

God for his return, and that he so had succeeded as was 
pleasing to them all. He then went again to Canterbury, 
and drove the clerks out of the minster, and there within 
placed monks, all as the pope commanded him. 

A. 996. In this year wiis Alfric consecrated archbishop 
to Chript-Church.* This year was Wulstan ordained bishop 
of London. 

A. 997. In this year the army went about Devonshire 
mto Severn-mouth, and there ravaged, as well among the 
C<:)rnish-men as among the North- Welsh, and among the 
men of Devon ; and then landed at Watchet, and there 
wrought much evil by burning and by man-slaying. And 
after that they again went about Penwithstert, on the south 
side, and went then into the mouth of the Tamar, and then 
went up until they came to Liddyford, and bui-ned and de- 
stroyed every tiling which they met with ; and they burned 
Ordulf's minster at Tavistock, and brought unspeakable 
booty with them to their ships. This year ai'chbishop Al- 
fric went to Rome after his arch-pall. 

A. 998. This year the army went again eastward into 
Frome-mouth, and everywhere there they went up as far as 
they would into Dorset. And forces were often gatliered 
against them ; but, as soon as they should have joined battle, 
then was there ever, through some cause, flight begun ; and 
in the end they ever had the victory. And then at another 
time they sat down in the Isle of Wight, and got their food 
the while from Hampsliire and from Sussex. 

A. 999. This year the army again came about into 
Thames, and went then up along the Medway, and to 
Rochester. And then the Kentish forces came there to meet 
them, and they there stoutly joined battle r but alas ! that 
they too quickly yielded and fled ; for they had not the sup- 
port which they should have had. And the Danish-men 
had possession of the place of carnage ; and then they took 
horse and rode wheresoever they themselves would, and full 
nigh all the West-Kentish men they ruined and plundered. 
Then the king, with his witan, decreed that, with a ship 
force and also with a land force, they should be attacked. 
But when th«; shipswere ready, tlien the miserable crew delayed 
Irom day to day, and distressed the poor people who la,j in 
• Canterbury. 


the ships : and ever su* it should have been forwarder, so was 
it later from one time to another ; and ever tliey let their 
enemies* forces increase, and ever the people retired from tlie 
sea. and they ever went forth after them. And then in the 
end, these expeditions both by sea and land effected nothiniz;, 
except tlie people's distress and waste of money, and the 
emboldening of their foes. 

A. 1000. In this year the king went into Cumberland, 
and ravaged it well nigh all. And his ships went out about 
Chester, and should have come to meet him, but they were 
not able . then ravaged they Anglesey. And the hostile 
fleet went tliis summer to Richard's dominions.* 

A. 1001. In this year was much hostility in the land of 
the English through the ship-force, and well nigh every 
where they ravaged and burned, so that they advanced 
in one course until they came to the town of Alton ; and 
then there came against them the men of Hampshire, and 
fought against them. And there was Ethelwerd the king's 
high-steward slain, and Leofric at Whitchurcli, and Leot'win 
the king's liigh-steward, and Wulfhere the bishop's thane, and 
Godwin at Worthy, bishop Elfsy's son,f and of all men, 
one and eighty ; and there were of the Danish-men many 
more slain, though they had possession of the place of car- 
nage. And they went thence west until they came to 
Devon ; and there Paley came to meet them, with the ships 
which he could gather, because he had fled from king Ethel- 
red, contrary to all the plighted troth that he had given him ; 
and the king had also well gifted him with houses, and with 
gold and with silver. And they burned Teignton, and also 
many other good towns which we are unable to name ; and 
thei'e, aftervk^ards, peace was made with them. And they 
tlien went thence to Exmouth, so that they proceeded up- 
wards in one course until they came to Pen : and there 
Cole the king's high-reve, and Edsy the king*s-reve, went 
against them with the forces which they were able to gather 
together ; and they there were put to flight, and there were 
many slain : and the Danish-men had possession of the place 
of carnage. And the morning after, they burned the villag<» 
of Pen and at Clifton, and also many goodly towns which we 
are unnble to name, and then went again east until thtf^ 
• Kormandj. f gee A. 1032 below. 

94 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a. d. 1002, 1003. 

came to the Isle of Wiirht ; and on the morning after, they 
bu'-iied the town at Waltham, and many other small townis 
and soon after a treaty was entered into with them, and they 
made peace. 

A. 1001. This year the army came to Exmouth, and then went up to 
the town, and there continued figliting stoiitly ; but they were very strenu- 
ously resisted. Then went they tlirough the land, and did all as was their 
wont ; destroyed and burnt. Then was collected a vast force of the peo- 
ple of Devonand of the people of Somerset, and they then came together 
at Pen, And so soon as they joined battle, then the people gave 
way : and there they made great slaughter, and then they rode over the 
land, and their last incursion was ever worse than the one before : and then 
thev brought much booty with them to their ships. And thence they went 
into the Isle of Wight, and there they roved about, even as they themselves 
would, and nothing withstood them : nor any fleet by sea durst meet them ; 
nor land force either, went they ever so far up. Then was it in every 
wise a heavy time, because they never ceased from their evil doings. 

A. 1002. In this year the king decreed, and his witan, 
that tribute should be paid to the fleet, and peace made with 
them, on condition that they should cease from their evil- 
doings. Then sent the king to the fleet Leofsy the 
caldorman ; and he then settled a truce with them by the 
king's word, and his witan's, and that they should receive 
food and tribute. And that they then accepted : and then 
were they paid twenty-four thousand pounds. Then during 
this, Leofsy the ealdorman slew Eafy the king's high-steward ; 
and the king then banished him ilie land. And then m the 
same Lent came the lady, Richard's * daughter, Emma 
Elfgive, hither to land : and in the same summer archbishop 
Aldulf f died. And in that year the king ordered all the 
Danish-men who were in England to be slain. This was 
done on St. Brice's mass-day ; because it was made known 
to the king that they would treacherously bereave him of his 
life, and afterwards all his witan ; and after that have his 
kingdom without any gainsaying. 

A. 1003. This year was Exeter entered by storm, through 
tlie French churl Hugh, whom the J lady had appointed her 
steward: and then the army entirely ruined the town, and 
there took much booty. And in the same year the army 
went up into Wiltshire. Then was gathered a very large 
force from Wiltsliire and from Hampshire, and very 

• Duke of Normandy. f Of York J Lmma. 


rr^solutely tliey came in presence of the army. Thee should 
tke ealdonnan Elt'ric have led the forces, but he then had 
recourse to his old devices : as soon as they were so near that 
either amiy could look on the other, then feigned he himself 
sick, and began by retching to spew, and said that he was 
grievously ill : and thus deceived the people whom he should 
have led ; as it is said : When tlie leader groweth feeble, 
then is all the army greatly liindered. When S^veyn saw 
that they were not unanimous, and that they all separated, 
then led he his army into Milton ; and they spoiled the town, 
and burned it ; and he went then to Salisbury, and thence 
went to the sea again, where he knew that his sea-horses 

A. 1004. Tliis year came Sweyn with his fleet to 
Norwich, and entirely spoiled and burned the town. Then 
decreed Ulfkytel, with the witan of East-Anglia, that it were 
better that they should purchase peace of the army before 
they did very much harm in the land ; because they had 
come unawares, and he had not time that he might gather 
his forces. Then during the truce which ought to have been 
between them, then stole the army up from their ships, and 
went their way to Thetford. When Ulfkytel understood 
that, then sent he word that the ships should be hewed in 
pieces, but they in whom he trusted failed to do it, and he 
then gathered his forces secretly, as he best might. And 
the army then came to Thetford, within three weeks of their 
having before plundered Norwich, and were one day there 
witliin, and plundered and burned the town. And then on tlie 
morrow, as they would have gone to their ships, then came 
Ulfkytel with his band, in order that they might there join 
battle with them. And they there stoutly joined battle, 
and much slaughter was there made on either hand. There 
were the chief among the East-Anglian people slain ; but if 
the full force there had been, they never again had gone to 
their ships ; inasmuch as they themselves said, that they 
never had met a worse hand-play among the English nation 
than Ulfkytel had brought to them. 

A. 1005. In this year was the great famine throughout 
the English nation ; such, that no man ever before recollected 
one so grim. And the fleet in this year went from this land 
lo Donmark ; ar.d staid but a little space ere it came again. 


A. 1006 Tliis year died archbishop Alfric, and after him 
bishop Elphege [11.] succeeded to tiie arclibishopnc :* and bi* 
»hop Brithwin succeeded to the bishopric of Wiltshire."!" And 
in the same year was Vv'ulfgeat deprived of all his possessions, 
and Wulfeah and Ufgeat were blinded, and Elfelm the 
ealdorman was slain ; and bishop Kenulf J died. And then^ 
after mid-summer, then came the great fleet to Sandwich, and 
did all as they had been before wont ; they ravaged, and 
burned, and destroyed, wherever they went. Then the king 
commanded all the people of Wessex and of Mercia to be 
called out ; and then tliey lay out all the harvest in the field 
against the army. But it availed notliing the more than it 
oft before had done : but for all this the army went 
wheresoever itself would, and the forces did every kind of 
harm to the inhabitants ; so that neither profited them, nor 
the home army nor the foreign army. When it became 
winter, then went the forces home ; and the army then came, 
over St. Martin's-mass, to their quarters in the Isle of ^Vight, 
and procured themselves there from all parts that which they 
needed. And then, at mid-winter, they went to their ready 
store, throughout Hampshire into Berkshire, to Reading: 
and they did their old wont ; they lighted their war-beacons 
as they went. Then went they to "V^'allingford, and that all 
burned, and were then one day in Gholsey : and they went 
then along Ashdown to Cuckamsley-hill, and there abode, 
as a daring boast ; for it had been often said, if they should 
reach Cuckamsley-liill, that they would never again get to 
the sea : then they went homewards another way. Then 
were forces assembled at Kennet, and they there joined battle • 
and they soon brought that band to flight, and afterwards 
carried their booty to the sea. But there might the 
Winchester-men see an army daring and fearless, as they 
went by their gates towards the sea, and fetched themselves 
food and treasures over fifty miles from the sea. Then had 
the king gone over Thames into Slu-opshire, and there took 
his abode during the mid-winter's tide. Then became the 
dread of the army so great, that no man could think or 
discover how they could be driven out of the land, or tliis 
land maintained against them ; for they had every shire ir 

* Of Canterbi.rv. f Afterwards the dic^ceflc of Salisbuiy. 

t Of Wincherter. 


Wessex sadlj marked, by burning and by plundering. Then 
the king began eai*nestly with ^jis witan to consider what 
mi^ht seem most advisable to them all, so that this land 
might be saved, before it was utterly destroyed. Then the 
king and his witan decreed, for the behoof of the whole 
nation, though it was hateful to them all, that they needs 
must pay tribute to the army. Then the king sent "^o the 
army, and directed it to be made known to them, that he 
would that there should be a truce between them, and that 
tribute should be paid, and food given them. And then all 
that they accepted : and then were they victualled from 
throughout the English nation. 

A. 1006. This year Elphege [II.] was consecrated archbishop.* 

A. 1007. Li this year was the tribute delivered to the 
army, that was thirty-six thousand pounds. In this year 
also was Edric appointed ealdorman over the kingdom of 
Mercia. This year bishop Elphege went to Rome after his 

A. 1008. This year the king commanded that ships should 
be speedily built throughout the English nation : that is then, 
from three hundred hides and from ten hides, one vessel ; and 
from eight hides, a helmet and a coat of mail. 

A. 1009. In this year were the ships ready about which 
we before spake ; and there were so many of them as never 
before, according as books say unto us, had been among the 
English nation in any king's days. And they were all 
brought together to Sandwich, and there they were to lie 
and defend this land against every foreign army. But still 
we had not the good fortune nor the worthiness, that the 
ship-force could be of any use to this land, any more than it 
oft before had been. Then befell it at this same time, or a 
little before, that Brihtric, Edric the ealdorman's brother, 
accused [of treason] to the king Wulfnoth the " child " of the 
South- Saxons, father of Godwin the earl. He then went out, 
and enticed ships unto him, until he had twenty ; and he then 
ravaged every where by the south coast, and wrought every 
kind of evil. Then it was told unto the ship-forces that 
they might be easily taken, if they would go about it. Then 
Brihtric took with him eighty ships, and thought that he 
fthouid acquire griat fame if he could seize Wulfncth alive 
• Of Canterbury. „ 


or dead. But as they were on their way thither, then cAme 
such a wind against them as no man before remembered, and 
the ships it then utterly beat, and smashed to pieces, and 
cast upon the land ; and soon came Wulfnoth, and burned 
the ships. When this was thus known in the other ships 
where the king was, how the others had fared, tlien was it as 
if it had been all hopeless ; and the king went his way liome, 
and the eaklormen and the nobility, and thus lightly left 
the ships ; and then afterwards, the people who were in the 
ships brought them to London : and they let the whole 
nation's toil thus lightly pass away ; and no better was that 
victory on which the whole English nation had fixed their 
hopes. When this ship-expedition had thus ended, then 
came, soon after Lammas, the vast hostile army, which we 
have called Thurkill's army, to Sandwich ; and they soon 
went their way to Canterbury, and the city would soon 
have subdued, if the citizens had not first desired peace of 
them : and all the people of East-Kent made peace with the 
army, and gave them three thousand pounds. And then, 
soon after that, the army went forth till they came to the Isle of 
Wight ; and thence every where in Sussex, and in Hampshire, 
and also in Berkshire, they ravaged and plundered as their 
wont is.* Then the king commanded the whole nation to be 
called out ; so that they should be opposed on every side : 
but lo ! nevertheless, they marched as they pleased. Then, 
upon a certain occasion, the king had got before them with 
all his forces, as they would go to their ships ; and all the 
people were ready to attack them. But it was then prevented 
thj-ough Edric the ealdorman, as it ever is still* Then, 
after St. Martin's-mass, they went once more into Kent, 
and took up their winter-quarters on the Thames, and ob 
tained their food from Essex, and from the shires which 
wore there nearest, on both sides of the Thames. And ot\ 
they fought against the city of London : but praise be to 
God that it yet stands sound, and they there ever met 
with ill fare. And then, after mid-winter, took they their 
way upwards through Chiltern, and so to Oxford, and burned 
the city 5 and betook themselves then, on both «»ides of the 

• These expressions in the present tense afford a strong proof that the 
orifrinal records of these transactions are nearly coeval with the transiictioiM 
ifeciiaelves. Later MSS. use the oast tense. — Inuiuh. 


niAin*^8, towards their ships. Then were they warned thrrt 
tliere were forces gathered at London against them : tlieu 
went they over at Staines. And thus they went the whole 
winter ; and during Lent they were in Kent, and repaired 
flbeir ships. 

A. 1010. This year, after Easter, came the fore-mentioned 
army into East-Anglia, and landed at Ipswich, and went 
forthwith where they understood Ulfkyiel was with his 
forces. This was on the day, called the first of the ascension 
of our Lord. The East Angles soon fled. Then stood Cam- 
bridge-shire firmly against them. There was slain Athelstan 
the king's son-in-law, and Oswy and his son, and WuLfric, 
Leofwin's son, and Eadwy, Efy's brother, and many other good 
thanes, and numberless of the people : the flight first began 
at Thurkytel Myrehead. And the Danes had possession of 
the place of carnage : and there were they horsed ; and 
afterwards had dominion over East-Anglia, and the land three 
months ravaged and burned ; and they even went into the 
wild fens, and they destroyed men and cattle, and burned 
throughout the fens : and Thetford they burned, and Cam- 
bridge. And after that they went southward again to the 
Thames, and the men who were horsed rode towards the 
ships ; and after that, very speedily, they went westward 
into Oxfordshire, and thence into Buckinghamshire, and so 
along the Ouse until they came to Bedford, and so onwards 
to Temsford ; and ever burning as they went. Then went 
they again to their ships with their booty. And when they 
went to their ships, then ought the forces again to have gone 
out against them, until they should land ; but then the forces 
went home : and when they were eastwards, then were the 
forces kept westwards ; and when they were southwards, 
then were our forces northwards. Then were all the witan 
summoned to the king, and they were then to counsel how 
this land might be defended. But although something might 
be then counselled, it did not stand even one month : at last 
there was no chief who would assemble forces, but each 
fled as he best might ; nor, at the last, would even one shire 
assist another. Then before St. Andrew's mass-day, came 
the enemy to Northampton, and they soon burned the town 
and took there-about as much as they themselves would ; 
ftnd thence they went over Thanies into Wesaex, and so by 

H 2 

100 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. ion, m2. 

Cannings-marsh, burning all the way. When they had 
gone so far as they then would, then came they at mid-winter 
to their ships. 

A. ion. In this year sent the king and his witan to the 
army, and desired peace, and promised them tribute and food, 
on condition that they would cease from their plundering. 
They had then over-run, 1st, East-Anglia, and 2d, Essex, 
and 3d, Middlesex, and 4th, Oxfordshire, and 5th, Cambridge- 
shire, and 6th, Hertfordshire, and 7th, Buckinghamshire, 
and 8th, Bedfordshire, and 9th, half of Huntingdonshire, 
and 10th, much of Northamptonshire ; and south ot 
Thames, all Kent, and Sussex, and Hastings, and Surry, and 
Berkshire, and Hampshire, and much of Wiltsliire. All 
these misfortunes befel us through unwise counsel, that they 
were not in time offered tribute, or fought against ; but when 
they had done the most evil, then peace and truce were made 
with them. And nevertheless, for all the truce and tribute, 
they went everywhere in bands, and plundered our miserable 
people, and robbed and slew them. And then in this year, 
between the Nativity of St. Mary and St. Mi chad's -mass, 
they besieged Canterbury, and got into it through treachery, 
because Elfmar betrayed it, whose life the archbishop Elphege 
had before saved. And there they took the archbishop 
Elphege, and Elfward the king's steward, and the abbess Leo- 
fruna,* and bishop Godwin.f And abbat Elfmar { they let 
go away. And they took there witliin all the men in orders, 
and men and women : it is not to be told to any man how 
many there were. And they remained within the city 
afterwards as long as they would. And when they had 
thoroughly searched the city, then went they to their ships, 
and led the archbishop with them. 
Was then captive erewhile saw bliss, 

he who erewhile was in that hapless city, 

head of the English race whence to us came first 

and Christendom. Cliristendom and bliss, 

There might then be seen 'fore God, and 'fore the world, 
misery, where men oft 

And they kept the archbishop with them so long as mtil the 
time that they martyred him. 

A 1012. In this year came Edric the ealdorman, and all 
• Of S. ^lildied'a. + Godwin 111. of Rochester. * Of St. Augustine'i. 


the chief witan, clergy and laity, of the English people to 
London, before Easter ; Easter-day was tlien on the Ides 
of April ; and they were there then so long as until all 
the tribute was paid, after Easter ; that was eight and forty 
thousand pounds. Then on the Saturday was the army 
greatly excited against the bishop, because he would not pro- 
mise them any money : but he forbade that any thing slioirtd 
be given for him. They had also drunk deeply, for wine 
had been brought there from the south. Then took they the 
bishop, led him to their hustings on the eve of Sunday, the 
octaves of Easter, which was on the 13th before the Kalends of 
May ; and there they then shamefully slaughtered him : 
they cast upon him bones and the horns of oxen, and then 
one of them struck him with an axe-iron on the head, so that 
with the blow he sank down ; and his holy blood fell on the 
earth, and his holy soul he sent forth to God's kingdom. 
And on the morrow the body was carried to London, and 
the bishops Ednoth* and Elfhun,"f and the townsmen, re- 
ceived it with all reverence, and buried it in St. Paul's 
minster ; and there God now manifesteth the miraculous 
powers of the holy martyr. When the tribute was paid, and 
oaths of peace were sworn, then the army separated widely, 
in like manner as before it had been gathered together. Then 
became subject to the king five and forty ships of the army, 
and covenanted with him that they would defend this country, 
and that he should feed and clothe them. 

A. 1013. In the year after that in which the archbishop 
Elphege was martyred, the king appointed bishop Living to 
be archbishop of Canterbury. And in this same year, 
before the month of August, came king Sweyn with his 
fleet to Sandwich, and went then, very soon, about East- 
Anglia into the mouth of the Humber, and so upward along 
Trent, until he came to Gainsborough. And then, soon, 
Utred the earl and all the North-humbrians submitted to 
him, and aU the people in Lindsey, and afterwards the people 
in the Five Boroughs, J and soon after, all the army north of 
WatUng-street ; and hostages were delivered to him from 
every shire. Alter he had learned that all the people were 

♦ Of Dorchester. + Of London. 

5 Namely, Leicester Lincoln, Nottingham, Stamford, and Deioy. S*j« 
942, 1015. 


obedient to liim, then bade he that his army should be 
victualled and horsed ; and he then afterwards went south- 
ward with all the forces, and committed the ships and the 
hostages to his son Canute. And after he came over Watling- 
street, they wrought the most evil that any army could do. 
Then went he to Oxford, and the townsmen soon submitted, 
and delivered hostages ; and thence to Winchester, and they 
did the like. Then went he thence eastward to London, and 
much of his people was drowned in the Thames, because 
they kept not to any bridge. When he came to the city, 
then would not the townsmen submit, but held out against 
him with all their might, because king Ethelred was therein, 
and Thurkill with him. Then went king Sweyn thence to 
Wallingford, and so over the Thames westward to Bath, and 
sat down there with his forces. A nd Ethelmar the ealdor- 
man came thither, and the western thanes with him, and they 
all submitted to Sweyn, and delivered hostages for them- 
selves. And when he had thus succeeded, then went he 
northward to his ships ; and then all the people held him for 
full king. And after that the townsmen of London sub- 
mitted, and delivered hostages, because they dreaded lest he 
should utterly undo them. Then Sweyn ordered a full-tri- 
bute and provisions for his army during the winter ; and 
Thurkill ordered the like for the army which lay at Green- 
wich : and for all that, they plundered as oft as they would. 
Then was this people nothing benefited either from the south 
or from the north. Then was king Ethelred some while 
with the fleet which lay in the Thames ; and the lady* then 
departed over sea to her brother Richard,f and Elfsy, abbat of 
Peterborough, with her. And the king sent bishop Elfhun 
with the ethelings, Edward and Alfred, over sea, that he 
might have charge of them. Then departed the king from 
the fleet at mid-winter into the Isle of Wight, and was there 
during that tide ; and after that tide he went over the sea to 
Richard, and was there with him until such time as Sweyn 
was dead. And the while that the lady was with her brother 
beyond sea, Elfsy, abbat of Peterborough, who was there with 
lier, went to the minster which is called Boneval, where St. 
Florentine's body lav. There found he a poor place, a poor 
abbat, and poor monks ; for they had been plundered. Then 
• Emma. f Duke of Normandy. 


©ought he there of the abbat and of the monks St. FIf ren 
tine's body, all except the head, for five hundred pounds ; 
and then when he came home again, then made he an offer- 
ing of it to Chi'ist and St. Peter. 

A. 1014. In this year king Sweyn ended his days, at 
Candlemas, on the tliird before the Nones of February. And 
that same year Alwy was consecrated bishop of London, at 
York, on St. Juliana's mass-day. And all the fleet then 
chose Canute for king. Then counselled all the witan who 
were in England, clergy and laity, that they should send 
after king Ethelred ; and they declared that no lord were 
dearer to them than their natural lord, if he would rule them 
better than he had before done. Then sent the king his 
son Edward hither with his messengers, and ordered them to 
greet all his people ; and said that he would be to them a 
loving lord, and amend all those things which they all ab- 
horred, and each of those things should be forgiven which 
had been done or said to him, on condition that they all, with 
one consent, would be obedient to him, without deceit. And 
they tlien established full friendship, by word and by pledge, 
on either half, and declared every Danish king an outlaw 
from England for ever. Then, during Lent, king Ethelred 
came home to his own people ; and he was gladly received 
by them all. Then, after Sweyn was dead, Canute^ sat with 
his army at Gainsborough until Easter ; and it was agreed 
between him and the people of Lindsey that they should find 
him horses, and that afterwards they should all go out to- 
gether, and plunder. Then came king Ethelred thither, to 
Lindsey, with his full force, before they were ready : and 
then they plundered, and burned, and slew all the people 
whom they could reach. And Canute went away out with his 
fleet, and thus the poor people were deceived through him, 
and then he went southward until he came to Sandwich ; 
and there he caused the hostages to be put on shore who had 
been delivered to his father, and cut off th^eir hands, and 
ears, and noses. And besides all these evils, the king 
ordered the army which lay at Greenwich to be paid twenty- 
one thousand pounds. And in this year, on the eve of St. 
JVIichael's mass, came the great sea-flood wide throughout 
this land, and ran so far up as it never before had done, aj i 
washed away many towns, and a couxitlei&s number of poupid 

104 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. lois, lom 

A. 1015. In this year was the great council at Oxford ; 
and there Edric the ealdorman betrayed Sigeferth and 
Morcar, the chief thanes in the Seven Boroughs. He allured 
them into his chamber, and there within they were cruelly 
slain. And the king then took all their possessions, and 
ordered Sigeferth's relict to be taken, and to be brought to 
Malmesbury. Then, after a little space, Edmund the 
etheling went there and took the woman, contrary to the 
king's will, and had her for his wife. Then, before the 
Nativity of St. Mary, the etheling went thence, from the 
west, north to the Five Boroughs, and soon took possession of 
all Sigeferth's property, and Morcar's ; and the people all 
submitted to him. Ajid then, during the same time, came 
king Canute to Sandwich ; and soon after went about Kent 
into Wessex, until he came to the mouth of the Frome : and 
then he ravaged in Dorset, and in Wiltshire, and in Somer- 
set. Then lay the king sick at Corsham. Then gathered 
Edric the ealdorman forces, and the etheling Edmund in 
the north. When they came together, then would the 
ealdorman betray the etheling, but he was not able : and 
tii-ry then parted without a battle on that account, and gave 
way to their foes. And Edric the ealdorman then enticed 
forty ships from the king, and then went over to Canute. And 
the men of Wessex submitted, and delivered hostages, and 
horsed the army ; and then was it there until mid-winter. 

A. 1016. In this year came Canute with his army, and 
Edric the ealdorman with him, over Thames into Mercia at 
Cricklade. And then they went to Warwickshire, during 
the midwinter's tide, and ravaged, and burned, and slew all 
that they could come at. Then began the etheling Edmund 
to gather his forces. When the forces were assembled, then 
would it not content them except it so were that the king 
were there with them, and they might have the help of the 
citizens of London : then gave they up the expedition, 
and each man went liim away home. Then after that tide, 
the forces were again called out, so that each man, who 
was able to go, should come forth, under full penalties ; 
and they sent to the king at London, and prayed him 
that he would come to meet the forces vdth such help as 
he could gather. When they all had come together, then 
xi ft vailed them nothing more than it oft before had duuo. 


Then was it made known to the king that they would betray 
liim ; they who ought to have been of aid to him. Then 
left he the forces and returned to London. Then rode the 
etheling Edmund into North-humbria to Utred the earl, 
and every man thought that they would assemble forces 
against king Canute. Then marched they into Staffordshire, 
and into Shropsliire, and to Chester ; and they plundered on 
their part, and Canute on his part. He went out through 
Buckinghamshire into Bedfordshire, and thence to Hunting- 
donshire, and so into Northamptonshire along the fens to 
Stamford, and then into Lincolnshire ; then thence to 
Nottinghamshire, and so to North-humbria towards York. 
When Utred heard tliis, then left he off his plundering, and 
hastened northwards, and then submitted, from need, and all 
the North-humbrians with him ; and he delivered hostages : 
and, notwithstanding, they slew him, through the counsel of 
Edric the ealdorman, and Thurkytel, son of Nafan, with 
him. And then, after that, king Canute appointed Eric to be 
his earl in North-humbria, in like manner as Utred had 
been ; and afterwards went southward, by another way, all 
to the west : and then before Easter, came all the army to 
their ships. And the etheling Edmund went to London to 
his father. And then, after Easter, went king Canute with all 
his ships towards London. Then befell it that king Ertbelred 
died, before the ships arrived. He ended his days on St. 
George's mass day, and he held his kingdom with great toil 
and under great difficulties the while that his life lasted. 
And then, after his end, all the peers who were in London, 
and the citizens, chose Edmund to be king : and he 
strenuously defended his kingdom the while that his time 
lasted. Then came the ships to Greenwich at Rogation days. 
And within a little space they went to London, and they dug 
a great ditch on the south side, and dragged their ships to 
the west side of the bridge ; and then afterwards they ditched 
the city around, so that no one could go either in or out : and 
they repeatedly fought against the city ; but the citizens 
strenuously withstood them. Then had the king Edmund, 
before that, gone out ; and then he over-ran Wessex, and all 
the people submitted to him. And soon after that he fought 
against the army at Pen, near GiUingham. And a second 
battle he fought, after mid-summer, at Sherston ; and ther 


much slaughter was made on either side, and the armies of 

themselves separated. In that battle was Edric the 
ealdorman, and JFAmer darling, helping the army against 
king Edmund. And then gathered he his forces for the 
third time, and went to London, all north of Thames, and so 
out through Clayhanger ; and relieved the citizens, and 
drove the army in flight to their ships. And then, two days 
after, the king went over at Brentford, and there fought 
against the army, and put them to flight : and there many 
of the English people were drowned, from their own 
carelessness ; they who went before the forces, and would 
take booty. And after that the king went into Wessex, and 
collected his forces. Then went the army, soon, to London, 
and beset the city around, and strongly fought against 
it, as well by water as by land. But the Almighty God 
delivered it. 

The enemy went then, after that, from London, with their 
ships, into the Orwell, and there went up, and proceeded into 
Mercia, and destroyed and burned whatsoever they over-ran, 
as is their wont, and provided themselves with food : and 
they conducted, as well their ships as their droves, into the 
Medway. Then king Edmund assembled, for the fourth 
time, all his forces, and went over the Thames at Brentford, 
and went into Kent ; and the army fled before him, with 
their horses, into Sheppey : and the king slew as many of 
them as he could overtake. And Edric the ealdorman went 
then to meet the king at Aylesford : than which no measure 
could be more ill-advised. 

The army then went again up into Essex, and passed into 
Mercia, and destroyed whatever it over-ran. 

When the king learned that the army was upward, then 
assembled he, for the fifth time, all the English nation, and 
followed after them, and overtook them in Essex, at the 
down which is called Assingdon : and there they strenuously 
joined battle. Then did Edric the ealdorman, as he had 
oft before done, begin the flight first with the Maisevethians, 
and so betrayed his royal lord and the whole people of th<i 
I'^nglish race. There Canute had the victory ; and all the 
English nation fought against him. There was slain bishop 
Ldaotli,* and abbat Wulsy, and Elfric the ealdorman, 
• Of Dorcneausr 

A. p. 1017,1018. THE ANGLO-SAaON CHRONICLE. 107 

and Godwin the ealdorman of Lindsey, and Ulfkytel of 
E^st-Anglia, and Ethelward, son of Etliclwine* the ealdor- 
man; and all the nobility of the English race was there 

Then, after this battle, went king Canute up with his army 
into Gloucestershire, wiiere he learned that king Edmund 

Then advised Edric the ealdorman, and the counsellors who 
were there, that the kings should be mutually reconciled. 
And they delivered hostages mutually ; and the kings came 
together at Olney near Deerhurst, and then confirmed their 
friendship as well by pledge as by oath, and settled the tribute 
for the army. And they then separated with this recon- 
cilement : and Edmund obtained Wessex, and Canute Mercia 
and the northern district. The army then went to their 
ships witli the things they had taken. And the men of 
London made a truce with the army, and bought themselves 
peace: and the army brought their ships to London, and 
took up their winter-quarters therein. Then, at St. An- 
drews mass, died king Edmund ; and his body lies at 
Glastonbury, with his grandfather Edgar. And in the 
same year died Wulfgar, abbat of Abingdon ; and Ethelsy 
succeeded to the abbacy. 

A. 1017. Li this year king Canute obtained the whole 
realm of the English race, and divided it into four parts: 
Wessex to himself, and East-Anglia to Thurkill, and Mer- 
cia to Edric, and North-humbria to Eric. And in this 
year was Edric the ealdorman slain in London, very justly, 
and Norman, son of Leofwin the ealdorman, and Ethel- 
ward, son of Ethelmar the great, and Britric, son of 
Elphege, in Devonshire. And king Canute banished Edwy 
the etheling, and afterwards commanded him to be slain, and 
Edwy king of the churls. And then, before the Kalends of 
August, the king commanded the relict of king Ethelred, 
Richard's daughter, to be fetched for his wife ; that was Elf- 
give in EngUsh, Emma in French. 

A. 1017. This year Canute was chosen king. 

A. 1018. In this year the tribute was delivered through- 
out the whole English nation ; that was altogether, two an4 

• Cahed Etheby in wimj MSi^ 

108 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. ioi9-io2a 

seventy thousand pounds, besides that which the townsmen 
of London paid, which was ten and a half thousand pounds 
And then some of the army went to Denmark, and forty 
ehips remained with king Canute. And the Danes and the 
Angles agreed, at Oxford, to live under Edgar's law. And 
this year abbat Ethelsy died at Abingdon, and Ethelwine 
succeeded him. 

A. 1019. This year king Canute went with forty ships to 
Denmark, and there abode all the winter. 

A. 1019. And this winter died archbishop Elfstan :* he was named 
Living; and he was a very prondent man, both as to God and as to thj 

A. 1020. In this year died archbishop Living: and king 
Canute came again to England. And then, at Easter, there 
was a great council at Cirencester: then was outlawed 
Ethelward the ealdorman, and Edwy, king of the churls. 
And in this year went the king to Assingdon, and arch- 
bishop Wulstan [II.]jt ^^^ Thurkyl the earl, and many bishops 
and also abbats, and many monks with them, and consecrated 
the minster at Assingdon. And Ethelnoth the monk, who 
was dean at Christ-Church, was in the same year, on the 
Ides of November, consecrated bishop at Christ-Church,^ by 
archbishop Wulfstan. 

A. 1020. And caused to be built there a minster of stone and lime, for 
the souls of the men who there were slain, and gave it to one of his priests, 
whose name was Stigand. 

A. 1021. In this year, at Martin-mass, king Canute out- 
lawed Thurkyl the earl. And bishop Elfgar,§ the alms- 
giver, died on Christmas-morn. 

A. 1022. This year king Canute went out with his ships 
to the Isle of Wight. Archbishop Ethelnoth went to Rome, 
and was there received by Benedict, the honourable pope, 
with much worship ; and he, wdth his own hands, put his pall 
upon him, and very honourably consecrated him archbishop, 
and blessed him, on the Nones of October. And the arch- 
bishop soon after, on the self-same day, sang mass therewith : 
and then thereafter was honourably entertained by the same 
pope, and also himself took the pall from St. Peter's altar j 

♦ Of Canterbury. f Of York. 

I Cftnterbury. ^ Of Elmluaa. 


*nd then afterwards he blithelj went home to his coantry. 
And abbat LeoA\dne, who had been unjustly driven out 
from Ely, was his companion; and he cleared himself of 
everything that was said against him, as the pope instructed 
him, in the presence of the archbishop, and of all the fellow- 
ship which was with him. 

A. 1022. And afterwards with the pall he there performed mass as the 
pope instructed him: and he feasted after that with the pope; and after- 
wards went home with a full blessing. 

A. 1023. This year king Canute came again to England, 
and Thurkyl and he were reconciled ; and he committed Den- 
mark and his son to the keeping of Thurkyl; and the king 
tfX)k Thurkyl's son with him to England. This year died 
archbishop Wulfstan :* and Elfric succeeded him ; and 
archbishop Ethelnoth blessed him at Canterbury. Tliis 
year king Canute, within London, in St. Paul's minster, gave 
full leave to archbishop Ethelnoth and Bishop Brithwine,f 
and to all the servants of God who were with them, that 
they might take up from the tomb the archbishop St. El- 
phege. And they then did so, on the sixth before the Ides 
of June. And the illustrious king, and the archbishop and 
suffragan bishops, and earls, and very many clergy, and alsc 
laity, carried, in a ship, his holy body over the Thames to 
Southwark, and there delivered the holy martyr to the arch- 
bishop and his companions; and they then, with a worshipful 
band and sprightly joy, bore him to Rochester. Then, on the 
third day, came Emma the lady, with her royal child Harda- 
Canute : and then they aU, with much state and bliss, and songs 
of praise, bore the holy archbishop into Canterbury; and then 
worshipfully brought him into Christ's Church, on the third 
before the Ides of June. Again, after that, on the eighth 
day, the seventeenth before the Kalends of July, arch- 
bishop Ethelnoth, and bishop Elfsy,J and bishop Brith- 
wine, and all those who were with them, deposited St. 
Elphege's holy body on the north side of Christ's altar, to 
the glory of God, and the honour of the holy archbishop, 
and the eternal health of all who there daily seek to his 
holy body with a devout heart and with all humility. God 
-Almighty have in^'rcy on all Christian men, through St 
Elphege's holy merits. 

• Of lork. f 'jf Sherborne. :: Of WincheBter 

no THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 1023-1031 

A. 1023. .ind ^e caused St. Elphege^s remains to be borne ftoni Londos 
to Canterbury. 

A. 1023. And the siime year arclihishop Ethelnoth bore St. Elpheae% 
the archbishop's, remains to Canterbury, from London. 

A. 1024. 

A. 1025. This year king Canute went to Denmark, with 
his ships, to the holm by the holy river. And there came 
aigainst him Ulf and Eglaf, and a very great army, as well a 
land-army as a fleet from Sweden. And there very many men 
were destroyed on king Canute's side, as well of Danish-men 
as of English : and the Swedes had possession of the place 
of carnage. 

A. 1026. This year bishop Elfric* went to Rome, and 
received his pall of Pope John, on the 2d before the Ides of 

A. 1027 

A. 1028. This year king Canute went from England, with 
fifty ships of English thanes, to Norway, and drove king 
Clave out of the land, and possessed himself of all that land. 

A. 1029. This year king Canute came home again to Eng- 
land. And so soon as he came to England, he gave to Christ- 
Church at Canterbury the haven at Sandwich, and all the 
dues that arise thereof, on either side of the haven : so that, 
lo! when the flood is all at the highest, and all at the fullest, 
if a ship be floating so nigh the land as it nighest may, and 
there be a man standing in the ship, and he have a taper ax 
in his ... . 

A. 1030. This year was king Clave slain in Norway by 
his own people ; and afterwards was sainted. And in this 
year, before that, died Hacon, the doughty earl, at sea. 

A. 1030. This year came king Olave again into Norway, and the people 
gathered against him, and fought against him ; and he was there slain. 

A. 1031. This year king Canute went to Rome. And so 
soon as he came home then went he into Scotland : and the 
king of the Scots, Malcohn [II.], submitted to him, and be- 
came his man, but that he held only a little while, and two 
other kings, Macbeth and Jelunar. And Robert, eail of Nor- 
mandy, went to Jerusalem, and there died ; and William, 
who was afterwards king in England, succeeded to Nor* 
Uiandy, though he was a child. 

♦ 01 York. 


A. 1032. In this year appeared the wild fire, such 2kS do 
man before remembered ; and moreover on all sides it did 
harm, in many places. And in the same year died Elfsy,* 
bishop at Winchester ; and Alwyn, the king's priest, suc- 
ceeded thereto. 

A. 1033. This year died bishop Leofsy, and his botly 
rests at Worcester: and Brilitegewas raised to his see.f In 
this year died Herewith bishop of Somerset 4 and he is 
buried at Glastonbury. 

A. 1034. This year died bishop Etheric,§ and he lies at 
Ramsey. This same year died Malcolm [H.], king in Scotland. 

A. 1035. This year died king Canute ; and Harold, his son, 
succeeded to the kingdom. He departed at Shaftesbury, on 
the 2d before the Ides of November ; and they bore him thence 
to Winchester, and there they buried him. And Elfgive, 
Emma, the lady, then sat there within : and Harold, who 
said that he was son of Canute and of the other Elfgive, 
though it was not true ; he sent thither, and caused to be taken 
from her all the best treasures, which she could not withhold, 
that king Canute had possessed ; and nevertheless she still 
8at there within, as long as she could. 

A. 1036. This year Alfred the innocent etheling, son of 
king Ethelred, came in hither, and would go to his mother, 
who sat at Winchester ; but that neither Godwin the earl, nor 
the other men who had much power, would allow him be- 
cause the cry was then greatly in favour of Harold, though 
that was unjust. 

But Godwin him then let, 
and liim in bonds set ; [ed 
and his companions he dispers- 
and some divers ways slew ; 
some they for money sold, 
some cruelly slaughtered, 
some did they bind, 
some did they blind, 
some did they mutilate, 
some did they scalp : 
nor was a bloodier deed 
done in this land 

since the Danes came, 
and here accepted peace. 
Now is our trust in 
the beloved God, 
that they are in bliss, 
blithely with Christ, 
who were without guilt 
so miserably slain. 
The etheling still lived, 
every ill they him vowed, 
until it was decreed 
that he should be led 

• Godwin and Dugdale make Elfsy or Elsinus. to be translated to Can- 
terbury, 1U38. t Worcrster. $ Wells. § Of Dorchestti- 

112 THE AKGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. loss-ioss. 

to Ely -bury, 

thus bound. 

Soon as he came to land, 

in the ship he was blinded ; 

and him thus blind 

they brought to the monks : 

and he there abode 

the while that he lived. 

After that him they biiried, 

as well was his due 

full worthily, 

as he worthy was, 

at the west end, 

the steeple well-nigh, 

in the south aisle. 

His soul is with Christ. 

A. 1036. This year died king Canute at Shaftesbury, and he is buried at 
Winchester in the Old-minster : and he was king over all England very 
nigh twenty years. And soon after his decease there was a meeting of all 
the witan at Oxford ; and Leofric the earl, and almost all the thanes north 
of the Thames, and the ' lithsmen' at London, chose Harold for chief of 
all England, him and his brother Hiirdecanute who was in Denmark. And 
Godwin the earl and all the chief men of Wessex withstood it as long as 
they could ; but they were unable to effect any thing in opposition to it. 
And then it was decreed that Elfgive, Hardecanute's mother, should dwell 
at Winchester with the king's, her son's, household, and hold all Wessex in 
hia power ; and Godwin the earl was their man. Some men said of 
Harold that he was son of king Canute and of Elfgive daughter of Elfelm 
the ealdorman, but it seemed quite incredible to many men ; and he waa 
nevertheless full king over all England. 

A. 1037. This year was Harold chosen king over all, and 
Hardecanute forsaken, because he stayed too long in Den- 
mark ; and then they drove out his mother Elfgive, tlie 
queen, without any kind of mercy, against the stormy winter : 
and she came then to Bruges beyond sea ; and Baldwin the 
earl* there weU received her, and there kept her the while 
she had need. And before, in this year, died Eafy the noble 
dean at Evesham. 

A. 1037. This year was driven out Elfgive, king Canute's relict ; she waa 
king Hardecanute's mother ; and she then sought the protection of Bald- 
win south of the sea, and he gave her a dwelling in Bruges, and protected 
and kept her, the while that she there was. 

A. 1038. This year died Ethelnoth the good archbishop,! 
and bishop Ethehic in Sussex, J who desired of God that he 
would not let him live, any while, after his beloved father 
Ethelnoth ; and accordingly, within seven days after, he 
departed, and bishop Elfric in East-Anglia, § and bishop 
Briteagusin Worc^j^tershire on the 13th before the Kalemis of 
January. And then bishop Eadsine succeeded to the arch- 

* Of Flauden* t Of Canterbury. t Selsej. $ Elmhara. 


bishopric, and Grinketd to the bishopric in Sussex, and 
bishop Living to Worcestervshire and to Gloucestershire. 

A. 1038. This year died Etlielnoth, the good archbishop, on the Ka- 
lends of November, and a little alter, Ethelric bishop in Sussex, and then 
before Christmas, Briteagus bishop in Worcestershire, and soon after, Elfric 
bishop in East-Anglia. 

A. 1039. This year was the great wind : and bishop 
Brithmar died at Lichfield, And the Welsh slew Edwin 
brother of Leofric the earl, and Thurkil, and Elfget, and 
very many good men with them. And this year also came 
Hai'decanute to Bruges, where his mother was. 

A. 1039. This year king Harold died at Oxford, on the 16th before the 
Kalends of April, and he was bxiried at Westminster. And he ruled Eng* 
land four years and sixteen weeks ; and in his days sixteen ships were re- 
tained in pay, at the rate of eight marks for each rower, in like manner as had 
been before done in the days of king Canute. And in this same yei\x came 
king Hardecanute to SandAvich, seven days before midsummer. And he waa 
soon acknowledged as well by English as by Danes ; though his advisers 
afterwards grievously requited it, when they decreed that seventy-two ships 
should be retained in pay, at the rate of eight marks for each rower. And 
in this same year the sester of wheat went up to fifty-five pence, and even 

A. 1040. This year died king Harold. Then sent they 
after Hardecanute to Bruges ; thinking that they did well. 
And he then came hither with sixty ships before midsummer, 
and then imposed a very heavy tribute, so that it could hardly 
be levied ; that was eight marks for each rower, and all were 
then averse to him who before had desired him ; and more- 
over he did nothing royal during his whole reign. He 
caused the dead Harold to be taken up, and had him cast into 
a fen. This year archbishop Eadsine went to Rome. 

A. 1 040. This year was the tribute paid ; that was twenty-one 
thousand pounds and ninety-nine pounds. And after that they paid to 
thirty-two ships, eleven thousand and forty-eight pounds. And, in 
this same year, came Edward, son of king Ethelred, hither to land* from 
Weal-land ; he was brother of king Hardecanute : they were both sons of 
Elfgive ; Emma, who was daughter of earl Richard. 

A. 104 1. This year Hardecanute caused all Worcestershire 
to be ravaged, on account of his two household servants, who 
demanded the heavy impost ; when the people slew them in th^ 
town within the minster. This year, soon after, came from 
beyond sea Edward, his brother on the motlier's side, king 

114 THE ANGLO-SAXON CnPwONIOLE. a.d. io4i-io«. 

Etheb-ed's eon, who before for many years had been driveiA 
from his country ; and yet was he sworn king : and he 
then abode thus in his brother's family while he lived. 
And in this year also Hardecanute betrayed Eadulf the earl.* 
while under his protection : and he became then a beher of 
his "wed." And this year bishop Egelricf was ordained at 
York, on the 3rd before the Ides of January. 

A. 1041 . This year died king Hardecanute at Lambeth, on the 6th before 
the Ides of June : and he was king over all Enjiland two years wanting ten 
days ; and he is buried in the Old-minster at Winchester with king Canute 
his father. And his mother, for his soul, gave to the New-minster the 
head of St. Valentine the martyr. And before he was buried, all people 
chose Edward for king at London : may he hold it the while that God 
shall grant it to him ! And all that year was a very heavy time, in many 
things and divers, as well in respect to ill seasons as to the fruits of the 
earth. And so much cattle perished in the year as no man before remem- 
bered, as well through various diseases as through tempests. And in this 
same time died Elsinus abbat of Peterborough ; and then Amwius the monk 
was chosen abbat, because he was a very good man, and of great simplicity. 

A. 1042. This year died king Hardecanute as he stood at 
his drink, and he suddenly fell to the earth with a terrible 
convulsion : and then they who were there nigh took hold of 
him ; and he after that spake not one word : and he died on 
the 6th before the Ides of June. And all people then ac- 
knowledged Edward for king, as was his true natural right. 

A. 1043. This year was Edward consecrated king at Win- 
chester, on the first day of Easter, with much pomp ; and 
then was Easter on the third before the Nones of April, 
Archbishop Eadsine consecrated liim, and before all the people 
well instructed 1dm ; and for his own need, and all the peo- 
ple's, well admonished him. And Stigand the priest wa.«. 
blessed bishop of the East- Angles. J And soon after, the 
king caused all the lands which his mother possessed to be 
seized into his hands, and took from her all that she pos- 
sessed in gold, and in silver, and in tilings unspeakable, be- 
cause she had before held it too closely with him. And soon 
after, Stigand was deposed from his bishopric, and all that 
he possessed was seized into the king's hands, because he 
was nearest to his mother's counsel, and she went just as be 
ftdrised her, as people thought. 

* Of Northumbna. f Of Durham. | Elmhoou 

A.i>. 1C43 1045. THE ANGLO-SAXCil CHi^ONICLE. llo 

\. 1043. This year was Edward consecrated king at Winchester (ti th<» 
firet day of Easter. And this ye?ir, fourteen days before Andrew's-masi*, 
the king was advised to ride from Gloucester, and Leofric the earl, and 
liodwin the earl, and Sigwarth [Siward] the earl, with their followers, to 
Winchester, unawares upon the lady [Emma] ; and they bereaved her of 
ill the treasures which she possessed, they were not to be told, because 
i>etore that she had been very hard with the king her son ; inasmuch uf 
»ii)e had done less for him than he would, before he was king, and also 
Bince : and they suffered her after that to remain therein. 

This year king Edward took the daughter [Edgitha] of Godwin the 
earl for his wife. And in this same year died bishop Brithwn, and he 
held the bishopric thirty-eight years, that was the bishopric of Shrr- 
borne, and Herman the king's priest succeeded to the bishopric. And in 
this year Wulfric was hallowed abbat of St. Augustine's at Christmas, »>n 
Stephen's mass-day, by leave of the king, and, on account of his great intir- 
mity, of abbat Elfstan. 

A. 1044. This year archbishop Eadsine* gave up tlie 
bishopric by reason of his infirmity, and he blessed thereto 
Siward abbat of Abingdon, as bishop, by the king's leave 
and counsel, and Godwin's the earl's : it was known to few 
men else before it was done, because the archbishop thought 
that some other man would obtain or buy it whom he could 
less trust in, and be pleased with, if more men should know 
of it. And in this year was a very great famine over all 
England, and corn was so dear as no man before remem- 
bered ; so that the sester of wheat went up to sixty pence, 
and even further. And in the same year the king went out 
to Sandwich with thirty-five ships : and Athelstan the 
churchwarden obtained the abbacy at Abingdon. And Sti- 
gand re-obtained his bishopric. And in the same year king 
Edward took Edgitha, daughter of Godwin the earl, to 
ivife, ten days before Candlemas. 

A. 1 044. This year died Living bishop in Devonshire, and Leofric suc- 
ceeded thereto : he was the king's priest. And in this same year died 
Elfstan abbat of St. Augustine's, on the third before the Nones of July 
And in this same year was outlawed Osgod Clapa. 

A. 1045. In this year died bishop Brithwinf on the 10th 
before the Kalends of May ; and king Edward gave the 
bishopric to Herman his priest. And in the same sum- 
mer king Edward went out with his ships to Sandwich ; 
and there so great a force was gathered, that no man had 

• Of Canterbury. 

t Of liusiiHUwryf afterwards removed to Salisbury. 


116 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. iws, iC46. 

■>^en tt greater fleet in this land. And in this same ym 
died bisljop Living* on the loth before tlie Kalends of 
April ; and the king gave the bishopric to Leofric his 
priest. This year died Elfward bishop of London, on the 
8th before the Kalends of August. He was first abbat of 
Evesham, and greatly advanced the minster whilst he 
was there. He went then to Ilamsey, and there gave up 
his life. And Manni was chosen abbat, f and ordained on 
the 4th before the Ides of August. And in this year was 
driven out Gunnilde, the noble woman, king Canute's niece ; 
and she, after that, stayed at Bruges a long while, and after- 
wards went to Denmark. 

A. 1045. This year died Grimkytel bishop in Sussex, and Heca the 
king's priest succeeded thereto. And in this year died Alwyn, bishop of 
Winche&iter, on the 4th before the Kalends of September ; and Stigand, 
bishop ti> the north,t succeeded thereto. And in the same year Sweyn 
the earl went out to Baldwin's land§ to Bruges and abode there all the 
winter ; and then in svmuner he went out. 

A. 1016. In this year Sweyn the earl went into Wales, 
and Grithn the Northern king|| went with him; and they 
delivered hostages to him. As he was on his way home- 
wards, then commanded he to be brought unto him the ab- 
bess of Leominster : and he had her as long as he listed ; 
and after that he let her go home. And in this same year 
Osgod Clapa was outlawed before mid-winter. And in tliis 
same year, after Candlemas, came the severe winter, with 
frost and with snow, and with all kinds of tempestuous wea- 
ther, so that there was no man then alive who could remem- 
ber so severe a winter as this was, as well through mortality 
of men as murrain of cattle ; even birds and fishes perished 
through the great cold and famine. 

A. 1046. This year died Bnth^vin, bishop in Wiltshire, and Herman 
was appointed to his see. In that year king Edward gathered a large ship- 
force at Sandwich, on account of the threatening of Magnus in Norway : 
hut his and Sweyn's contention in Denmark hindered his com'tng here. 

A. 1046. This year died Athelstan, abbat of Abingdon, and Spar- 
hawk, monk of St. Edmund's-bury, succeeded him. And in this 8;ime 
\ •lar died bishop Siward, and archbishop Eadsine again obtained the whole 
^isnopriclf And in this same year Lothen and Irling came with twenty- 
fivt; ships to Sandwich, and there took unspeakable booty, in men^ and ia 

• Of Creditor. t Of Evesham. X Of Ehnham. 

i Fiandere. ^ E Of Nortli Wales. ^ Of Canterbury. 


gold, and in silver, so that no man knew how much it all waa. And they 
then went about Thanet, ani would there do the like ; but the land's folk 
strenuously withstood them, and denied them as well landing as water ; 
and thence utterly put them to flight. And they betook themselves then 
into Essex, and there they ravaged, and took men, and j)roperty, and what- 
soever they might find. And they betook themselves then east to Bald- 
wine's land, and there they sold what they had plundered ; and after that 
went their way east, whence they before had come. 

A. 1046. In this year was the great s}Tiod at St. Remi's [Rheims]. 
Thereat was Leo the pope, and the archbishop of Burgundy [Lyons], and 
the archbishop of Besanfon, and the archbishop of Treves, and the arch- 
bishop of Rheims ; and many men besides, both clergy and laity. And 
king Edward sent thither bishop Dudoc,* and Wulfric abhat of St. Augus- 
tine's, and abbat Elfwin,+ that they might make known to the king what 
should be there resolved on for Christendom. And in this same year king 
Edward went out to Sandwich with a great fleet. And Sweyn the earl, 
Bon of Godwin the earl, came in to Bosham with seven ships ; and he 
obtained the king's protection, and he was promised that he should beheld 
worthy of every thing which he before possessed. Then Harold the earl, 
his brother, and Beom the earl contended that he should not be held wor- 
thy of any of the things which the king had granted to them : but a pro- 
tection of four days was appointed him to go to his ships. Then befell it 
during this, that word came to the king that hostile ships lay westward, 
and w^re ravaging. Then went Godwin the earl west about with two of 
the king's ships ; the one commanded Harold the earl, and the other Tos- 
ty his brother ; and forty- two of the people's ships. Then Harold the eari 
was removed from the king's ship which Harold the earl before had com- 
manded. Then went they west to Pevensey, and lay there weather-bound. 
Upon this, after two days, then came Sweyn the earl thither, and spoke 
with his father, and with Beom the earl, and begged of lieom that he 
would go with him to the king at Sandwich, and help him to the khig's 
friendship : and he granted it. Then went they as if they would go to the 
king. Then whilst they were riding, then begged Sweyn of him that he 
would go with him to his ships: saj-ing that his seamen would depart from 
liim unless he should at the soonest come thither. Then went they both 
where his ships lay. When they came thither, then begged Sweyn the 
earl of him that he would go with him on ship-boaid. He strenuously 
refused, so long as until his seamen seized him, and threw him into the 
boat, and bound him, and rowed to the ship, and put him there aboard. 
Then they hoisted up their sails and ran west to Exmouth, and had hin? 
with them until they slew him : and they took the body and buried it in n 
churdi. And then his friends and litsmen came from London, and took 
him up, and bore him to Winchester to the Old-minster: and he is there 
buried with king Canute his uncle. And Sweyn went then ea«t to Bald- 
win's land, and sat down there all the ^vinter at Bruges, with his full prf>- 
tection. And m the same year died Eadnoth [II.] bishop t of the north 
»nd Ulf was made bishop. 

A. 1047. In this year died bishop Grinketel ; he was 
• Of Welia, t Of R^imscv. ; Of LJorcneeter. 

118 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. io47. i043. 

bishop* in Sussex, and he lies in Christ-Church, at Canter 
bury ; and king Edward gave the bishopric to Heca his 
priest. And in this same year died bishop Alwynj on the 
4th before the Kalends of September ; and liing Edward 
gave the bishopric to bishop Stigand. And Athelstan 
abbat of Abingdon died in the same year, on the 4th before 
the Kalends of April : then was Easter-day on the 3rd before 
the Nones of April. And there was over all England a very 
great mortality in the same year. 

A. 1047. This year died Living the eloquent bishop, on the 10th before 
the Kalends of April, and he had three bishoprics; one in Devonshire, 
and in Cornwall, and in Worcester. Then LeofricJ succeeded to Devon- 
shire and to Cornwall, and bishop Aldred to Worcester. And in this year 
Osgod, the master of the horse, was outlawed : and Magnus$ won Denmark. 

A. 1047. In this year there was a great council in London at Mid-lent, 
and nine ships of lightermen were discharged, and five remained behind. 
In this same year came Sweyn the earl into England. And in this same 
year was the great synod at Rome, and king Edward sent thither bishop 
iieroman and bishop Aldred ; and they came thither on Easter eve. 
And afterwards the pope held a synod at Vercelli, and bishop Ulf came 
thereto ; and well nigh would they have broken his staff, if he had not 
given very great gifts ; because he knew not how to do his duty so well as 
he should. And in this year died archbishop Eadsine, on the 4th before 
the Kalends of November. 

A. 1048. In this year was a great earthquake wide through- 
out England. In the same year Sandwich and the Isle of 
Wight were ravaged, and the chief men that were there slain. 
And after that king Edward and the earls went out with 
heir ships. And in the same year bishop Siward resigned 
the bishopric on account of his infirmity, oid went to Abing- 
ion, and archbishop Eadsine again received the bishopric :J 
ind he [Siward] died within eight weeks after, on the 10th 
before the Kalends of November. 

A. 1048. This year was the severe winter • and this year died Alwyn, 
bishop of Winchester, and bishop Stigand was raised to his see. And be- 
tore that, in the same year, died Grinketel, bishop in Sussex, and Heca 
the priest succeeded to the bishopric. And Swevn also sent hither, beg- 
ging assistance against Magnus, king of Norway ; tnat fifty ships should be 
»ent to his aid. But it seemed unadvisable to all people : and it was then 
•iladered by reason that Magnus had a great ship force. And he then 
drove out Sweyn, and with much man-slaying won the land : and tha 

♦ Of SelseT. + Of Winchester. 

^ LeotiiC removed the »ee to Fxr-ter. 

^ King of Norway. ( Of Cai\terhury. 



Danes pa'd him much money and irknowledged him as king. And that 
■ime year Magnus died. 

A. 1048. In this year king Edward app/iinted Robert, of Londoa, 
archbiahop of Canterbury, during Lent. And in the same Lent he went to 
Rome after his pall : and the king gave the bishopric of London to Spar- 
hafoc abbat of Abingdon ; and the king gave the abbacy of Abingdon to 
bishop Rodulf, his kinsman. Then came the archbishop from Rome one 
day before St. Peter 's-mass-eve, and entered on his archiepiscopal see at 
Christ's Church on St. Peter's mtiss-day ; and soon after went to the kinj;. 
Then came abbat Sparhafoc to him with the king's writ and seal, in order 
that he should consecrate him bishop of London. Then the archbisiiorv 
refused, and said that the pope had forbidden it him. Then went the abl'at 
to the archbishop again for that purpose, and there desired episcopal ordi- 
nation ; and the archbishop constantly refused him, and said that the pope 
had forbidden it him. Then went the abbat to London, and occupied the 
bishopric which the king before had granted him, with his full leave, all the 
summer and the harvest. And then came Eustace* from beyond sea soon 
after the bishop, and went to the king, and spoke with him that which he then 
would, and went then homeward. When he came to Canterbury, east, then 
took he refreshment there, and his men, and went to Dover. When be was 
some mile or more on this side of Dover, then he put on his breast- plate, 
and so did all his companions, and went to Dover. When they came 
thither, then would they lodge themselves where they chose. Then came 
one of his men, and would abide in the house of a householder against his 
will, and wounded the householder ; and the householder slew the other. 
Then Eustace got upon his horse, and his companions upon theirs ; and 
the^ went to the householder, and slew him within his own dwelling ; and 
they went up towards the town, and slew, as well within as without, 
more than twenty men. And the townsmen slew nineteen men on 
the other side, and wounded they knew not how many. And Eustace 
escaped with a few men, and went again to the king, and made known 
to him, in part, how they had fared. And the king became very wroth 
with the townsmen. And the king sent off Godwin the earl, and bade him 
go into Kent in a hostile manner to Dover : for Eustace had made it 
appear to the king, that it had been more the fault of the townsmen than 
his : but it was not so. And the earl would not consent to the inroad, be- 
cause he was loath to injure his own people. Then the king sent after all 
his council, and bade them come to Gloucester, nigh the aftermass of St, 
Mary. Then had the Welshmen erected a castle in Herefordshire among 
the people of Sweyn the earl, and wrought every kind of harm and dis- 
grace to the kind's men there about which they could. Then came God- 
win the earl, and Sweyn the earl, and Harold the ean, together at Bever- 
stone, and many men with them, in order that they might go to their royal 
lord, and to all the peers who were assembled with him, in order that 
they miglit have the advice of the king and his aid, and of all this council, 
how they might avenge the king's disgrace, and the whole nation's. Then 
were the Welshmen with the king beforehand, and accused the earlsy 
Bo that they might not come within his eyes' sight ; because they said that 
they were coming thither in order to betray the king. Thither bad 

* Eao Dt fioulogue. 


Si ward the earl • and Leofricthe earl,+ and much people with them, from 
the north, to the king ; and it was made known to tlui earl Grjdwin and his 
sons, that the king and the men who were with him, were taking counsel 
concerning them : and they arrayed themselves on the other hand reso- 
lutely, thoTigh it were loathful to them that they should stand againt* their 
royal lord. Then the peers on either side decreed that every kind of evil 
ehould ceafe : and the king gave the peace of God and his full fciendship 
to either side. Then the king and his peers decreed that a council of all 
the nobles should be held for the second time in London at the harvest 
equinox ; and the king directed the army to be called out, as well south 
of the Thames as north, all that was in any way most eminent. Then de- 
clared they Sweyn the earl an outlaw, and summoned Godwin the earl and 
Harold the earl, to the council, as quickly as they could effect it. When 
they had come thither, then were they summoned into the coimcil. Theit 
required he safe conduct and hostages, so that he might come, unbetrayed, 
into the council and out of the council. Then the king demanded all the 
thanes whom the earls before had ; and they granted them all into his 
hands. Then the king sent again to them, and commanded them that they 
should come with twelve men to the king's council. Then the earl again 
required safe conduct and hostages, that he might defend himself against 
each of those things which were laid to him. Then were the hostages re- 
fused him ; and he was allowed a safe conduct for five nights to go out of 
the land. And then Godwin the earl and Sweyn the earl went to 
Bosham, and shoved out their ships, and betook themselves beyond sea, 
and sought Baldwin's protection, and abode there all the winter. And 
Harold the earl went west to Ireland, and was there all the winter within 
the king's protection. And soon after this happened, then put away the 
king the lady who had been consecrated his queen,:!: and caused to be taken 
from her all which she possessed, in land, and in gold, and in silver, and in 
all things, and delivered her to his sister at Wherwell. And abbat Sj)rir- 
hafoc was then driven out of the bishopric of London, and William the king's 
priest was ordained thereto. And then Odda was appointed earl over 
Devonshire, and over Somerset, and over Dorset, and over the Welsh. 
And Algar, the son of Leofric the earl, was appointed to the earldom 
which Harold before held. 

A. 1049. In this year the emperor gathered a countless 
force against Baldwin § of Bruges : by reason that he had 
'estroyed the palace at Nimeguen, and also, that he had 
lone many other injuries to him : the force was not to be 
told which he had gathered. There was Leo [IX.] the pope 
of Rome, and many great men of many nations. He sent 
also to king Edward, and begged the aid of his ships, in 
order that he should not suffer him to ©scape from him by 
water. And he went then to Sandwich, 5nd there continued 
lying with a great fleet, until the emperor obtained of Bald- 

♦ Of Northvjiibna. t Of .Mercia. 

t IMithA. i £arl of Flandeza. 


win all that he would. Tliither came back again Swejii 
the earl to king Edward, and requested land of hiin, from 
which he might maintain himself. But Harold his brother 
contended, and Beorn the earl, that they should not give 
up to him any thing which the king had given to them. 
He came hither with false pretences ; saying that he would 
be his man, and begged of Beorn the earl that he would aid 
him : but the king refused him every thing. Then went 
Sweyn to his ships at Bosham ; and Godwin the earl went 
from Sandwich vsdth forty-two ships to Pevensey, and Beorn 
the earl went forth with him ; and then the king gave leave 
to all the Mercians to go home : and they did so. Then wiia 
it made known to the king, that Osgod lay at Ulps with 
thirty-nine ships. Then the king sent after the ships which 
lay at the Nore, that he might send after him. But 
Osgod fetched his wife from Bruges, and went back again 
with six ships ; and the others landed in Essex, at Eadulf- 
ness, and there did harm, and went again to their ships. 
Then lay Godwin the earl and Beorn the earl at Pevensey 
with their ships. Then came Sweyn the earl with fraud, 
and begged of Beorn the earl that he would be his companion 
to the king at Sandwich ; saying that he would swear oaths 
to him, and be faithful to him. Then Beorn concluded that, 
on account of their kindred, he would not deceive him. Then 
took he three companions with him, and they then rode to 
Bosham, as if they would go to Sandwich, where Sweyn's 
Bhips lay. And they soon bound him, and led him on shi])- 
board ; and then went to Dartmouth, and there caused him to 
be slain and deeply buried. But him his kinsman Harold 
thence fetched and bore to Winchester, and there buried with 
king Canute his uncle. And then the king and all the army 
declared Sweyn an outlaw. Eight ships he had before he 
murdered Beorn ; after that, aU forsook him except two : 
and then he went to Bruges, and there abode with Baldwin. 
And in this year died Eadnoth, the good bishop, in Oxford- 
shire,* and Oswy abbat of Thorney, and Wulfnoth abbat of 
Westminster : and king Edward gave the bishopric to Ulf 
his priest, s.nd unworthily bestowed it. And in this same 
year king Edward discharged nine ships from pay ; and 
they went away, ships and all ; and five ohips remained be- 
• Dorchester. 

122 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICL"S. a. d. 1049, 105.). 

hind, and the king promised them twelve months' paj. And 
in the same year went bishop Heroman* and bishop Aldredf 
to Rome, to the pope, on the king's errand. 

A. 1049. This year Sweyn came again to Denmark, and Harold, uncle of 
Magnus, went to Norway after Magnus was dead ; and the Normans 
acknowledged him : and he sent hither to land concerning peace. And 
Sweyn also sent from Denmark, and begged of king Edward the aid of 
his ships. They were to be at least fifty ships : but all people opposed it. 
And this year also there was an earthquake, on the Kalends of May, in 
many places in Worcester, and in Wick, and in Derby, and elsewhere ; and 
also there was a great nioi-tality among men, and murrain among cattle : 
and moreover, the wild-fire did much evil in Derbyshire and elsewhere. 

A. 1050. In this year came the bishops home from Rome : 
and Sweyn the earl was inlawed. And in this same year 
died archbishop Eadsine, on the fourth before the Kalends of 
November ; and also, in this same year, Alfric archbishop of 
York, on the eleventh before the Kalends of February ; and 
liis body lies at Peterborough. Then king Edward held 
a council in London at Mid-lent, and appointed Robert 
archbishop of Canterbury, and abbat Sparhafoc to London ; 
and gave to bishop Rodulf, his kinsman, the abbacy at 
Abingdon. And the same year he discharged all the 
lightermen from pay. 

A. 1050. Thither also came Sweyn the earl, who before had gone from 
this land to Denmark, and who there had ruined himself with the Danes. 
He came thither with false pretences ; saying that he would again he 
obedient to the king. And Beom the earl promised him that he would be 
of assistance to him. Then, after the reconciliation of the emperor and of 
Baldwin, many of the ships went home, and the king remained behind at 
Sandwich with a few ships ; and Godwm the earl also went with forty-two 
ships from Sandwich to Pevensey, and Beom the earl went with him. Then 
was it made known to the king that Osgod lay at Ulpswith thirty-nine 
ships ; and the king then sent after the ships which before had gone home, 
that h<» m'ght send after him. And Osgod fetched his wife from Bruges, 
and they went hack again with six ships. And the others landed in 
Sussex t at Eadulf-ness, and there did harm, and went again to their ships : 
and then a strong wind came against them, so that they were all destroye<i, 
except four, whose crews were slain beyond sea. While Godwin the ear 
and Beom the earl lay at Pevensey, then came Sweyn the earl, and begged 
Beom the earl, with fraud, who was his uncle's son, tliat he would be his 
companion to the king at Sandwich, and better his affairs with him. He 
went then, on account of the relationship, with three companions, with 
him ; and he led him then towards Bosham, where his ships lay : and then 
they bi)und him, and led him on ship-board. Then went he thence witk 

♦ Of Ramshury, Heroman removed the see t<> Salisbury, 
t Of Worcester. J ijwey. 

A.D. 1051, 1032. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 123 

him to Dartmouth, and there ordered him to be slain, and deepiy bur{e<L 
Aftejwards he was found, and borne to \\'inchester, and buried with king 
Canufe bis nroV. A little before that, the men of Hastings and thereabrmt, 
fought two of his ships with their ships ; and slew all the men, and brought 
the sliips to Sandwich to the king. Eight ships he had before he betrayed 
Beom ; after that all forsook him except two. In tlie same year arrived 
in the Welsh Axa, from Ireland, thirty-six ships, and thereabout did harm^ 
with the help of Griffin the Welsh king. The people were gathered 
together against them ; bishop Aldred * was also there with them ; but 
iney had too little power. And they came unawares upon them at very 
early morn ; and there they slew many good men, and the others escaped 
with the bishop : this was done on the fourth before the Kalends of August. 
This year died, in Oxfordshire, Oswy abbat of 'i'horney, and Wulfnoth 
abbat of Westminster ; and Ulf the priest was appointed as pastor to the 
bishopric which Eadnoth had held ; but he was after that driven away j 
because he did nothing bishop-like therein : so that it shameth us now to 
tell more about it. And bishop Siward died: he lieth at Abingdon. And this 
year was consecrated the great minster at Rheims : there was pope Leo [IX.] 
and the emperor ;t and there they held a great synod concerning God's 
service. St. Leo the pope presided at the synod : it is difficult to have a 
knowledge of the bishops who came there, and how many abbats : and 
hence, from this land were sent two — from St. Augustine's and from 

A. 1051. In this year came archbishop Robert hither 
over sea with his pall. And in this same year were banished 
Godwin, the earl, and all his sons from England ; and he 
went to Bruges and his wife, and liis tliree sons, Sweyn, 
and Tosty, and Grith : and Harold and Leofwine went to 
Ireland, and there dwelt during the winter. And in this 
same year died the old lady, king Edward's mother, and 
Hardecanute's, who was called Emma, on the second before 
the Ides of March ; and her body lies in the Old-minster. J 
with king Canute. 

A. 1051. In this year died Kadsine archbishop of Canterbury ; and the 
king gave to Robert the Frenchman, who before had been bishop of Lon- 
don, the archbishopric. And Sparhafoc abbat of Abingdon succeeded to 
the bishopric of London ; and it was afterwards taken from him before he 
was consecrated. And bishop Heroraan and bishop Aldred went to Rome. 

A. 1052. This year came Harold, the earl, from Ireland, 
with Ids ships to the mouth of the Severn, nigh the bound- 
aries of Somerset and Devonshire, and there greatly ravaged ; 
and the people of the land drew together against him, aa 
well from Somerset as from Devonshire ; and he put them to 
flight, and there slew more than thirty good tlianes, besides 
• Of Worcester. f Hen. III. % Wincheste . 


other people : and soon after that he went about Penwith^ 
Btert. And then king Edward caused forty vessels to b« 
fitted out. They lay at Sandwich many weeks ; they were 
to lie in wait for Godwin, the earl, who had been at Bruges 
during the winter ; and, notwithstanding, he came hither to 
land first, so that they knew it not. And during the time 
that he was here in the land, he enticed to him all the men 
of Kent, and all the boatmen from Hastings and every- 
where there by the sea-coast, and all the East-end, and Sus« 
Bex, and Surrey, and much else in addition thereto. Then all 
declared that they with him would die and live. When the 
fleet which lay at Sandwich, learned this concerning God- 
win's voyage, then set they out after him. And he escaped 
them, and concealed himself wherever he then could ; and 
the fleet went again to Sandwich, and so homeward to Lon- 
don. Then when Godwin learned that the fleet which lay 
at Sandwich was gone home, then went he once more to the 
Isle of Wight, and lay thereabout by the sea-coast so long as 
until they came together, he and liis son earl Harold. And 
they did not much harm after they came together, except 
that they seized provisions : but they enticed to them all the 
Umd-folk by the sea-coast and also up the country ; and they 
went towards Sandwich, and collected ever forth with them 
all the boatmen which they met with, and then came to 
Sandwich, with an overflowing army. When king Edward 
learned that, then sent he up after more help ; but they came 
very late. And Godwin advanced ever towards London 
with his fleet until he came to Southwark, and there abode 
6ome time until the flood-tide came up. During that time 
he also treated with the townsmen, that they should do 
almost all that he would. When he had mustered all 
his host, then came the flood-tide ; and they then soon drew 
their anchors, and held their way through the bridge by the 
south shore, and the land-force came from above, and arrayed 
themselves along the strand : and they then inclined with 
the ships towards the north shore, as if they would hem the 
king's ships about. The king also had a great land-force on 
his side, in addition to his shipmen ; but it was loathful to 
almost all of them that they should fight against men cf 
their own race ; for there was little else there which was ot 
much account except Englishmen, on either aifle ; and iDDrc- 


over they wero unmlling that this land should be still mora 
exposed to OMilandish men, by reason that they theraselvei 
destroyed each other. Then decreed they that wise men 
sliould be sent between them ; and they settled a truce on 
either side. And Godwin landed, and Harold his son, and 
from their fleet as many as to them seemed fitting. Then 
there was a j>eneral council : and they gave his earldom 
clean to Godwin, as full and as free as he before possessed it, 
and to his sons also all that they before possessed, and to his 
wife and his daughter as full and as free as they before pos- 
sessed it. And tliey then established between them full 
friendship, and to all the people they promised good law. 
And then they outlawed all the Frenchmen who before had 
instituted unjust law, and judged unjust judgments, and 
counselled ill counsel in this land ; except so many as they 
agreed upon, whom the king liked to have with him, who 
were true to him and to all liis people. And bishop Robert,* 
and bishop William, f and bishop Ulf,J with difficulty 
escaped, with the Frenchmen who were with them, and thus 
got over sea. And Godwin, the earl, and Harold, and the 
queen, § sat down in their possessions. Sweyn had gone 
before this to Jerusalem from Bruges ; and he died on his 
way home at Constantinople on Michael's-mass. It was on 
the INIonday after St. Mary's-mass that Godwin with his 
ships came to Southwark ; and the morning after, on the 
Tuesday, they were reconciled, as it here before stands. 
Godwin then grew sick soon after he landed ; and he after- 
wards departi.^.d : but he did all too little penance for the 
property of God which he held belonging to many holy 
places. And the same year came the strong wind, on Tho- 
mas's-mass-night, and did much harm in many parts. More- 
over Rees, the Welsh king's |j brother, was slain. 

A. 1052. This year died Alfric, archbishop of York, a very pious man, 
and wise. And in the same year king Edward abolished the tribute, 
which king Ethelred had before imposed : that was in the nine-and- 
thirtieth year after he had begun it. That tax distressed all the English 
nation during so long a time, as it here above is written ; that was ever be- 
fore other taxes which were variously paid, and wherewith the people were 
manifestly distressed. In the same year Eustace ^ landed at Dover : he 

♦ Of CanStrbury. f Of London. t Oi Dorchester. 

f Editha, U Of South Wales. ^ Earl of Boulogne. 


had king Edward's aster to wife. Then went his men mconfiideiately 
ifter quarters, and a certain man of the town they slew ; and another man 
of the town their companion ; so that there lay seren of his companions. 
And much harm was there done on either side, by horse and also by 
weapons, until the people gathered together : and then they fled away 
until they came to the king at Gloucester ; and he gave them protection. 
When Godwin, the earl, understood that such things should have hap- 
pened in his earldom, then began he to gather together people over all his 
earldom,* and Sweyn, tlie earl, his son, over his, and Harold, his other son, 
over his earldom ; and they all drew together in Gloucestershire, at Lang- 
tree, a great force and countless, all ready for battle ag;iinst the king, un- 
less Eustace were given up, and his men placed in their hands, and also 
the Frenchmen who were in the castle. This was done seven days before 
the latter mass of St. Mary. Then was king Edward sitting at Gloucester. 
Then sent he after Leofric, the earl,t and north after Siward the earl,J and 
be^,'ged their forces. And then they came to him ; first with a moderate aid, 
but after they knew how it was there, in the south, then sent they north over 
all their earldoms, and caused to be ordered out a large force for the help 
of their lord ; and Ralph, also, over his earldom : and then came they all 
to Gloucester to help the king, though it might be late. Then were they 
all BO united in opinion with the king that they would have sought out 
Godwin's forces if the kijig had so willed. Then thought some of them 
that it would be a great folly that they should join battle ; because there 
was nearly all that was most noble in England in the two armies, and they 
thought that they should expose the land to our foes, and cause great de- 
struction among ourselves. Then counselled they that hostages should be 
given mutually ; and they appointed a term at London, and thither the 
people were ordered out over all this north end, in Siward's earldom, and 
in Leofric's, and also elsewhere ; and Godwin, the earl, and his sons were 
to come there with their defence. Then came they to Southwark, and a 
great multitude with them, from Wessex ; but his band continually dimin- 
ished the longer he stayed. And they exacted pledges for the king from 
all the thanes who were under Harold, the earl, his son ; and then they 
outlawed Sweyn, the earl, his other son. Then did it not suit him to come 
with a defence to meet the king, and to meet the army which was with him. 
Then went he by night away ; and the king on the morrow held a council, 
and, together with all the army, declared him an outlaw, him and all 
his sons. And he went south to Thorney, and his wife, and Sweyn his son, 
and Tosty and his wife, Baldwin's relation of Bruises, and Gnth his son. 
And Harold, the earl, and Leofwine, went to Bristol in the ship which 
Sweyn, the earl, had before got ready for himself, and pro\isioned. And 
the king sent bishop Aldred § to London with a force ; and they were to 
overtake him ere he came on ship-board : but they could not or they would 
not. And he went out from Avonmouth, and met with such heavy weather 
that he with difficulty got away ; and there he sustained much damage. 
Then went he forth to Ireland when fit weather came. And Godwin, 

• Godwin's earldom consisted of Wessex, Sussex, and Kent : Sweyn'f 
of Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford, Somerset, and Berkshire : and Harold'i 
of Essex, East-Anglia, Huntingdon, and Cambridgeshire. 

t Of Mercia. J Of Northumbria. § Of \Vorc—ua 


and those who were with him, went from Thomey to Bruges, to Baldwin*! 
land, in one ship, with as much treasure as they nii<^lit therein best stow i\>r 
each man. It would have seemed wondrous to every man who wua in 
Kngland if any one before that had said that it sliould end thus ; for he had 
been erewhile to that degree exalted, as if he ruled the king and all Eng- 
land ; and his sons were earls and the king's darlings, and his dau^-^htei 
wedded and united to the king : she was brought to Wherwell, and they 
delivered her to the abbess. Then, soon, came William, the earl,* Irom 
beyond sea, with a great band of Frenchmen ; and the king ri.-ceivfd 
him, and as many of his companions as it pleased him ; and let hmi away 
at;ain. This same year was given to William, the priest, the bishopric of 
London, which before had been given to Sparhafoc. 

A. 1052. This year died Elfgive, the laily, relict of king Ethelred and 
of king Canute, on the second before the Is ones of March. In the »mne 
year Griffin, the Welsh king, plundered in Herefordshire, imtil he came 
very nigh to Leominster ; and they gathered against liim, as well the 
landsmen as the Frenchmen of the castle, and there were slain of the 
English very many good men, and also of the Frenchmen ; that was on 
the same day, on which, thirteen years before, Eadwine had been slain by 
his companions. 

A. 1052. In this year died Elfgive Emma, king Edward's mother and 
king Hardecanute's. And in this same year, the king decreed, and his 
council, that ships should proceed to Sandwich ; and they set Ralph, the 
earl, and Odda, the earl,+ as head-men thereto. Then Godwin, the earl, 
went out from Bruges with his ships to Ysendyck, and left it one day before 
Midsummer's-mass eve, so that he came to Is' ess, which is south of Rom- 
ney. Then came it to the knowledge of the earls out at Sandwich ; and 
they then went out after the other ships, and a land-force was ordered out 
against the ships. Then during this, Godwin, the earl, was warned, and 
then he went to Pevensey ; and the weather was very severe, so that 
the earls could not learn what was become of Godwin, the carl. And then 
Godwin, the earl, went out again, until he came once more to Bruges; and 
the other ships returned again to Sandwich. And then it was decreed that 
the ships should return once more to London, and that other earls and 
commanders should be appointed to the ships. Then was it <ielayed so 
long that the ship-force all departed, and all of them wen* home. When 
Godwin, the earl, learned that, then drew he up his sail, and his fleet, and 
then "rent west direct to the Isle of Wight, and there landed and ravaged so 
.ong there, until the people yielded them so much as they laid on them. 
Ar.d then they went westward imtil they came to Portlani, and there they 
landed, and did whatsoever harm they were able to do. Then was Harold 
come out from Ireland with nine ships ; and then landed at Porlock, and 
there much people was gathered against him ; but he failed not to procure 
himself provisions. He proceeded further, and slew there a great number 
of the people, and took of cattle, and of men, and of propeity as it suited 
him. He then went eastward to his father : and then they both went east- 
ward imtil they came to the Isle of Wight, and there took that which was 
yet remaining for them. And then they wont thence to Pevensey, and 
got Hway thence as many sh'w^ as were there fit for service, and so on vai48 

t Of Devon. 


until fie came to Ness, and got all the ships which were in Romney, and i» 
Hythe, and in Folkstone. And theji they went east lo Dover, and theal 
huided, and there took sliips and hostages, as many as they would, and i9 
went to SandM'ich and did " hand " the same ; and everywnere hostage^ 
were given them, and provisions wherever they desired. And then thi^ 
went to North-mouth, and so toward London ; and some of the ships went 
within Sheppey, and there did mucli harm, and went their way to King'a 
Milton, and that they all burned, and betook themselves then toward 
London after the earls. When the} came to London, there lay the king 
and all the earls there against them, with fifty ships. Then the earls sent 
to the king, and re(juired of him, that they might be held worthy of each 
of those things which had been unjustly taken from them. Then the king, 
however, resisted some while ; so long as until the people who were with 
the earl were much stirred against the king and against his people, so that 
the earl himself with difficulty stilled the people. Then bishop Stigand 
interposed with God's help, and the wise men as well within the town aa 
without ; and they decreed that hostages should be set forth on either side : 
and thus was it done. When archbishop Robert and the Frenchmen 
learned that, they took their horses and went, some west to Pentecost's 
castle, some north to Robert's castle. And archl)ishop Robert and bishop 
Ulf went out at East-gate, and their companions, and slew and otherwise 
injured many young men, and went their way direct to Eadulf's-ness ; and 
he there put himself in a crazy ship, and went direct over sea, and left his 
■ all and all Christendom here on land, so as God would have it, inasmuch as 
he had before obtained the dignity so as God would not have it. Then there 
was a great council proclaimed without London : and all the earls and the 
chief men who were in this land were at the council. There Godwin bore 
forth his defence, and justified himself, before king Edward his lord, and 
before all people of the land, that he was guiltless of that which was 
laid against him, and against Harold his son, and all his children. And 
the king gave to the earl and his children his full friendship, and full earl- 
dom, and all that he before possessed, and to all the men who were with 
him. And the king gave to the lady* all that she before possessed. And 
they declared archbishop Robert utterly an outlaw, and all the French- 
men, because they had made most of the difference between Godwin, the 
earl, and the king. And bishop Stigand obtained the archbishopric of 
Canterbury. In this same time Amwy, abbat of Peterborough, left the 
abbacy, in sound health, and gave it to Leofric the monk, by leave of tha 
king and of tlie monks ; and abbat Amwy lived afterwards eight years. 
And abbat Leofric then (enriched) the minster, so that it was called the 
Golden-borough. Then it waxed greatly, in land, and in gold, and in silver. 
A. 1052. And went so to the Isle of Wight, and there took all the ships 
which could be of any service, and hostages, and betook himself so eastward. 
And Harold had landed with nine ships at Porlock, and slew there much 
people, and took cattle, and men, and property, and went his way eastward 
to his father, and they both went to Romney, to Hythe, to Folkstone, to 
Dover, to Sandmch, and ever they took all the ships which they found, 
which could be of any service, and hostage*, aU aa iiey proceeded ; and 
wai then to London. 

• EdjthA. 

A.D. 1058, 1064 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONTCLE. 1-29 

A. 1053. In this year was the king at Winchester at 
Ea.«^ter, and Godwin, the earl, with him, and Harold, the 
earl, his son, and Tosty. Then, on the second day c>f 
Easter, sat he with the king at the feast : then suddenly sank 
he down by the footstool, deprived of speech, and of all his 
power, and he was then carried into the king's chamber, and 
they thought it would pass over : but it did not so ; but he 
continued on, thus speechless and powerless, until the Thurs- 
day, and then resigned his life : and he lies there within the 
Old -minster. And his son Harold succeeded to his earldom, 
and resigned that which he before held ; and Elgar suc- 
ceeded tliereto. This same year died Wulfsy, bishop of 
Lichfield, and Leofwine, abbat of Coventiy succeeded to the 
bishopric ; and Egelward, abbat of Glastonbury, died, and 
Godwin, abbat of Winchcomb. Moreover, the Welshmen 
slew a great number of the English people, of the wardmen, 
near Westbury. In this year there was no archbishop in 
this land ; but bishop Stigand held the bishopric of Canter- 
bury at Christchurch, and Kynsey of York ; and Leofwine 
and Wulfwy went over sea, and caused themselves to be there 
ordained bishops ; Wulfwy obtained the bishopric which Ulf 
had,* he being yet living and driven from it. 

A. 1053. This year was the great wind on Thomas 's-mass-night, ana 
also the whole midwinter there was much wind ; and it was decreed that 
ReeSjthe Welsh king's brother, should be slain, because he had done harm 
and his head was brought to Gloucester on Twelfth-day eve. And the 
same year, before All Hallows-mass, died Wulfsy, bishop of Lichfield, 
and Godwin, abbat of Winchcomb, and Egelward, abbat of Glastonbury, 
all within one month, and Leofwine succeeded to the bishopric of Lich- 
field, and bishop Aldredf took the abbacy at Winchcomb, and Egel- 
noth succeeded to the abbacy at Glastonbury. And the same year died 
Elfric, Odda's brother at Deorhurst ; and his body resteth at Pershore 
And the same year died Godwin the earl ; and he fell ill as be sat with 
the king at Winchester. And Harold his son succeeded to the earldom 
which his father before held ; and Elgar, the earl, succeeded to the earl- 
dom which Harold before held. 

A. 1053. In this year died Godwin, the earl, on the 17th before the 
Kalends of May, and he is buried at Winchester, in the Oid-rainster ; and 
Harold, the earl, his son, succeeded to the earldom, and to all that which 
his father had held : and Elgar, the earl, succeeded to the earldom which 
Harold before held. 

A. 1054. This year went Siward the earl± with a great 
army into Scotland, and made much slaughter of the Scots 
♦ Dorchester. f Of Worcester. X Of Northumbria. 


130 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. ior>*, 1055. 

and put them to flight : and the king escaped. Moreover, 
many fell on his side, as well Danish-men as English, and also 
his own son.* The same year was consecrated the minster 
at Evesham, on the 6th before the Ides of October. In the 
same year bishop Aldredf went south over sea into Saxony, 
and was there received with much reverence. That same 
year died Osgod Clapa suddenly, even as he lay on his 
bed. In this year died Leo [IX.] the holy pope of Rome. 
And in this year there was so great a murrain among cattle, 
as no man remembered for many years before. And Victor 
[II.] was chosen pope. 

1054. This year went Siward the earl with a great army into Scotland, 
both with a ship-force and with a land-force, and fought against the Scots, 
and put to Bight king Macbeth, and slew all who were the chief men in the 
land, and led thence much booty, such as no man before had obtained. 
But his son Osborn, and his sister's son Siward, and some of his house-carls, 
and also of fhe king's, were there slain, on the day of the Seven Sleepers. 
The same year went bishop Aldred to Cologne, over sea, on the king's 
errand ; and he was there received with much worship by the emperor,J 
and there he dwelt well nigh a year ; and either gave him entertainment, 
both the bishop of Cologne and the emperor. And he gave leave to 
bishop Leofwine§ to consecrate the minster at Evesham on the 6th before the 
Idea of October. In this year died Osgod suddenly in his bed. And this 
year died St. Leo the pope ; and Victor was chosen pope in his stead. 

A. 1055. In this year died Siward the earl at York, and his 
body lies within the minster at Galmanho, || which himself had 
before built, to the glory of God and of all his saints. Then, 
within a little time after, was a general council in London, 
and Elgar the earl, Leofric the earl's son, was outlawed 
without any kind of guilt ; and he went then to Ireland, and 
there procured himself a fleet, which was of eighteen ships, 
besides his own : and they went then to Wales, to king 
Griffin,^ with that force ; and he received him into his pro- 
tection. And then, with the Irishmen and with Welshmen, 
they gathered a great force : and Ralph the earl gathered a 
great force on the other hand at Hereford-port. And they 
sought them out there : but before there was any spear 
thrown, the English people fled because they were on horses | 

* Osbom. + Of "Worcester. 

i Henry III. fj Of Lichfield. 

I A Saxon abf ey, merged afterwardi in St Maiy^ at York. 

i Of North Walw. 


and there great slaughter was made, about four hundr<^ci 
men oi five ; and they made none on the other side. And 
they then betook themaelves to the town, and that they 
burned ; and the great minster which Athelstan the vene 
rable bishop before caused to be built, that they plundered 
*.nd bereaved of relics and of vestments, and of all things s 
and slew the people, and some they led away. Then a force 
was gathered from well nigh throughout all England, and 
they came to Gloucester, and so went out, not far, among 
the Welsh ; and there they lay some while : and Harold the 
earl caused the ditch to be dug about the port* the while. 
Then, during this, then spoke they concerning peace ; and 
Harold the earl, and those who were with him, came to 
Bilsley : and there peace and friendship was established 
between them. And then they inlawed Elgar the earl, 
and gave him all that before had been taken from him ; ar^d 
the fleet went to Chester, and there awaited their pay, which 
Elgar had promised them. The man-slaying was on the 
rsinth before the Kalends of November. In the same year 
died Tremerin the Welsh bishop, f soon after that ravaging ; 
he was bishop Athelstan's coadjutor from the time that be 
had become infirm. 

A. 1055. In this year died Siward the earl at York, and he lies at 
Galmanho, in the minster which himself caused to be built, and consecrated 
in God's and Olave's name. And Tosty succeeded to the earldom which he 
had held. And archbishop KynseyJ fetched his pall from pope Victor. 
And soon thereafter was outlawed Elgar the earl, son of Leofric the earl, 
well-nigh without guilt. But he went to Ireland and to Wales, and pro- 
cured himself there a great force, and so went to Hereford : but there came 
against him Ralph the earl, with a large army. And with a slight conflict 
he put them to flight, and much people slew in tne flight : and they went then 
into Hereford-port, and that they ravaged, and burned the great minster 
which bishop Athelstan had built, and slew the priests within the minster, 
and many in addition thereto, and took all the treasures therein, and carried 
them away with them. And when they had done the utmost evil, this 
counsel was counselled : that Elgar the earl should be inlawed, and be 
given his earldom, and all that had been taken from him. This ravaging 
happened on the 9th before the Kalends of November. In the same year 
died Tremerin the Welsh bishop,$ soon after that ravaging : and he waa 
bifhop Athelstan's coadjutor from the time that he had become infirm. 

A. 1055. In this year died Siward the earl : and then was siraimoived a 
general coimcil, seven days before Mid-lent ; and they outlawed Elgsv *he 
eurl, because it was cast upon him that he was a traitor to the king aivi to 

• Hereford. f Of St. David's. J Of York. $ Of St David'* 


132 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d 1056.1057. 

flll the people of the land. And he made a rorfession of it before all th« 
men wlio were there gathered ; though the word escaped hiin uninten- 
tionally. And the king gave the earldom to Testy, son of eai-1 Godwin, 
w-hich Siward the earl before held. And Elgar the earl sought Griffin's 
protection in North-Wales. And in this year Griffin and Elgar burned St. 
Kltheibert's minster, and all the town of Hereford. 

A. 1056. This year bishop Egelric gave up his bishopric 
<it Durham, and went to St. Peter's minster, Peterborough ; and 
his brother Egelwine succeeded thereto. This year died 
Athelstan the venerable bishop, on the 4th before the Ides 
of February, and liis body lies at Hereford-port ; and Leof- 
gar was appointed bishop ; he was the mas--priest of Harold 
the earl. He wore his knapsack during his priesthood 
until he was a bishop. He forsook his chrism and his rood, 
his ghostly weapons, and took to his spear and his sword, 
after his bishophood ; and so went to the field against Griffin 
the Welsh king : and there was he slain, and his priests 
with him, and Elnoth the sheriff and many good men with 
them ; and the others fled away. This was eight days 
before midsummer. It is difficult to tell the distress, and 
ail the marching, and the camping, and the travail and de- 
struction of men, and also of horses, which all the English 
army endured, until Leofric the earl* came thither, and 
Harold the earl, and bishop Aldi-ed,f and made a reconcilia- 
tion there between them ; so that Griffin swore oaths that he 
v/ould be to king Edward a faithful and unbetraying under- 
ki ng. And bishop Aldred succeeded to the bishopric 
v/hich Leofgar had before held eleven weeks and four days. 
In the same year died Cona| the emperor. This year 
died Odda the earl,§ and his body lies at Pershore, and he 
was ordained a monk before his end ; a good man he was 
and pure, and right noble. And he died on the 2nd before 
the Kalends of September. 

A. 1057. 
Here came Edward etheling 
to Angle-land ; 
\e was king Edward's 
bother's son, 
Edmund king, 
who Ironside was called 

for his valour. 

This etheling Canute king 

had sent away 

to Unger-land|| 

to be betrayed : 

but he there grew up 

to a good man. 

• Of Mercia. f Of Worcester. t Hon. IIL 

( Of Devon. y Hungary, 

A.D. 1057, 1058. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 133 

his kinsman Edward 

kinoj beliold. 

Alas ! that was a rueful caso 

and harmful 

for all this nation 

that he so soon 

his life did end [came 

after that he to Angle-lard 

for the mishap 

of this wretched nation. 

a8 Gf.J him granted. 

and him well became ; 

so that he obtained [wife, 

tlie emperor's kinswoman to 

and by her, fair 

offspring he begot : 

she was Agatha hight. 

Nor wist we 

for which cause 

that done was, 

that he might not 

In the same year died Leofric the earl,* on the second befor© 
the kalends of October ; he was very wise for God and also 
for the world, which was a blessing to all this nation. He 
lies at Coventry ; and his son Elgar succeeded to his govern- 
ment. And within the year died Ralph, the earlf on th« 
12th before the kalends of January; and he lies at Peter- 
borough. Moreover, bishop Heca died in Sussex, and Agel- 
ric was raised to his secj And this year pope Victor died, 
and Stephen [IX. J was chosen pope. 

A. 1057. In this year Edward etheling, king Edmund'8 son, camenither 
to land, and soon after died : and his body is buried within St. Paul's min- 
ster at London. And pope Victor died, and Stephen [IX.] was chostn 
pope : he was abbat of Mont-Cassino. And Leofric the earl died, and 
Elgar his son succeeded to the earldom which the father before held. 

A. 1058. This year Elgar, the earl,§ was banished ; but 
he soon came in again, with violence, through Griffin's || aid. 
And this year came a fleet from Norway : it is tedious to 
tell how all these matters went. In the same year bishop 
Aldredlf consecrated the minster at Gloucester, wliich himself 
liad raised to the glory of God and of St. Peter ; and so he 
went to Jerusalem with such splendour as none other h?.d 
displayed before him, and there devoted himself to God: ami 
a worthy gift he also offered at our Lord's tomb ; that was u 
golden chalice of five marks of very wonderful work. In 
the same year died Pope Stephen [IX.], and Benedics 
[^X.]| was appointed pope : he sent a pall to bishop Stiganil 

* OfMercia. f Of Hereford. 

t Selaey. ^ Of Mercia. 

H King of North Wales. 11 Of Worcester, 

134 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. io5»-ioQa 

Algenc was ordained l»shop of Silsstx * and abbat Siward 
of Rochester. 

A. 1058. This year died Pope Stephen, and Benedict was consec^ted 
pope : the same sent hither to land a pall to archbishop Stigand. And 
in this year died Heca, bishop of Sussex ; and archbishop Stigand 
ordained Algeric, a monk at Christchurch, bishop of Sussex, and abbat 
Siward bishop of Rochester. 

A. 1059. In this year was Nicholas fll.] chosen pope, 
he had before been bishop of the town of Florence ; and 
Benedict was driven awaj, who had there before been pope. 
And in this year was the steeple consecrated at Peter- 
borough, on the 16th before the Kalends of November. 

A. 1060. In this year there was a great earthquake on 
the Translation of St. Martin : and king Henry died in 
France. And Kynsey, archbishop of York, departed on the 
11th before the Kalends of January, and he lies at Peter- 
borough ; and bishop Aldred succeeded to the bishopric, and 
Walter succeeded to the bishopric of Herefordshire : and 
bishop Dudoc also died ; he was bishop in Somerset ;j" and 
Giso the priest was appointed in his stead. 

A. 1061. This year bishop Aldred went to Rome after 
his pall, and he received it from Pope Nicholas. And Tosty 
and his wife also went to Rome ; and the bishop and the 
earl suffered much distress as they came homeward. And 
this year died Godwin, bishop of St. Martin's 4 ^"^ Wulfric 
abbat of St. Augustine's, on the 14th before the Kalendj^ of 
April [May?]. And Pope Nicholas died, and Alexander 
[IL] was chosen pope : he had been bishop of Lucca. 

A. 1061. In this year died Dudoc, bishop of Somerset, and Giso succeedeo . 
And in the same year died Godwin, l)ishop of St. Martin's, on the 7th 
before the Ides of March. And in the self-same year died Wulfric, abbat 
of St. Augustine's, within the Easter week, on the 14th before the 
Kalends of May. When word came to the king that abbat Wulfric was 
departed, then chose he Ethelsy the monk thereto, from the Old-Min- 
ster, who then followed archbishop Stigand, and was consecrated abbat at 
Windsor, on St. Augustine's mass-day. 

A. 1062. 

A. 1063. In this year, after raidwintp.r, Harold, the earl^ 

went from Gloucester to Rhyddlan, which was Griffin's, and 

burned the vill, and his ships, and all the stores which 

thereto belonged, and put liim to flight. And then, at Roga* 

* Selsey f Weiu. t At Canterbuty 


tion-tide, Harold went with his ships from Bristol about 
Wales ; and the people made a truce and delivered hostages ; 
and Tostj went with a land-force against them : and they 
subdued the land. But in this same year, during harvest, 
was king Griffin slain, on the Nones of August, by his own 
men, by reason of the war that he warred with Harold the 
earl. He was king over all tlie Welsli race : and his head 
was brought to Harold the earl, and Harold brought it to the 
king, and his ship's head, and the rigging therewith. And 
king Edward committed the land to his two brothers, Bleth- 
gent and Rigwatle ; and they swore oaths, and delivered 
hostages to the king and to the earl, that they would be 
faithful to him in all things, and be everywhere ready for 
him, by water and by land, and make such renders from the 
land as had been done before to any other king. 

A. 1063. This year went Harold the earl, and his brother Tosty the 
earl, as well with a land-force as a ship-force, into Wales, and they sub- 
dued the land ; and the people delivered hostages to them, and submitted ; 
and went afterwards and slew their king Griffin, and brought to Harold his 
head: and he appointed another king thereto. 

A. 1064. 

A. 1065. Li this year, before Lammas, Harold the earl 
ordered a building to be erected in Wales at Portskeweth, 
after he had subdued it ; and there he gathered much good ; 
and thought to have king Edward there for the purpose of 
hunting. But when it was all ready, then went Caradoc, 
Griffin's son, with the whole force wliich he could procure, 
and slew almost all the people who there had been building ; 
and they took the good which there was prepared. We wist 
not who first devised this ill counsel. This was done on St. 
Bartholomew's mass-day. And soon after this, all the thanes 
in Yorkshire and in Northumberland gathered themselves 
together, and outlawed their earl, Tosty, and slew his house- 
hold men, aU that they might come at, as well English as 
Danish : and they took all his weapons at York, and gold, 
and silver, and all his treasures which they might any where 
there hear of, and sent after Morkar, the son of Elgar the 
earl, and chose him to be their earl : and he went south with 
all the shire, and with Nottinghamshire, and Derbyshire, 
and Lincolnshire, until he came to Northampton : and his 
brother Edwin came ty neet him with the men who wer« 



in his earldom, and also many Britons camo with him. 
There came Harold, the earl, to meet them ; and they laid 
an errand upon him to king Edward, and also sent messen- 
gers with him, and begged that they might have Morkar for 
their earl. And the king granted it, and sent Harold again 
to them at Northampton, on the eve of St. Simon's and 
St. Jude's mass ; and he made known the same to them, and 
deliverdd a pledge thereof unto them : and he there renewed 
Canute's law. But the northern men did much harm 
about Northampton whilst he went on their errand, irjfl" 
much as they slew men and burned houses and corn ; and 
took all the cattle which they might come at, that was many 
thousand : and many hundrod men they took and led north 
^vith them ; so that that shire, and the other shires which 
there are nigh, were for many years the worse. And Tosty 
the earl, and his wife, and all those who would what he 
would, went south over sea with him to Baldwin, the earl, 
and he received them all ; and they were all the winter 
there. And king Edward came to Westminster at midwin- 
ter, and there caused to be consecrated the minster which him- 
self had built to the glory of God and of St. Peter, and of 
all God's saints ; and the church-hallowing was on Childer- 
mass-day. And he died on Twelfth-day eve, and him they 
buried on Twelfth-day eve, in the same minster, as it here- 
after sayeth. 

Here Edward king, 

of Angles lord, 

gent his stedfast 

soul to Christ, 

in God's protection, 

spirit holy. 

He in the world here 

dwelt awhile 

in royal majesty 

mighty in council. 


lordly ruler ! 

of winters numbered, 

he wealth dispensed ; 

and he a prosperous tide; 

ruler of heroes, 

I distinguished governed, 

j Welsh and Scots, 
and Britons also, 
son of Ethelred, 
Angles and Saxons, 
chieftains bold. 
Where'er embrace 
cold ocean-waves, 
there all to Edward, 
noble king ! 
obeyed faithfully, 
the warrior-men. 
Aye was blithe-mind 
the harmless king, 
though he long erst 

> of land bereaved. 

A.i>. 1005,1066. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 137 

in exile dwelt 

mde o'er the earth, 

since Canute o'ercame 

■.he race of Ethelred, 

and Danes wielded 

the dear realm 

of Angle-land, 


of winters numbered, 

wealth dispensed. 

After forth-came, 

in vestments lordly, 

king with the chosen good, 

chaste and mild, 

Edward the noble : 

the realm he guarded, 

land and people, 

until suddenly came 

death the bitter, 
and so dear a one seized 
This noble, from earth 
angels carried, 
stedfast soul, 
into heaven's light. 
And the sage ne'erthelcss, 
the realm committed 
to a highly-born man, 
Harold's self, 
the noble earl ! 
He in all time 
obeyed faithfully 
his rightful lord 
by words and deeds, 
nor aught neglected 
which needful was 
■ to his sovereign -king. 

And this year also was Harold consecrated king ; and he with 
little quiet abode therein, the while that he wielded the 

A. 1065. And the man-slaying was on St. Bartholomew's mass-day. 
And then, after Michael's-mass, all the thanes in Yorkshire went to York, 
and there slew all earl Tosty's household servants whom they might 
hear of, and took his treasures : and Tosty was then at Britford with the 
king. And then, very soon thereafter, was a great council at Northamp- 
ton ; and then at Oxford on the day of Simon and Jude. And there was 
Harold the earl, and would work their reconciliation if he might, but he could 
not : but all his earldom him unanimously forsook and outlawed, and all 
who with him lawlessness upheld, because he robbed God first, and all 
those bereaved over whom he had power of life and of land. And they then 
took to themselves Morkar for earl ; and Tosty went then over sea, and his 
\«nfe with him, to Baldwin's land, and they took up their winter residence 
at St. Omer's. 

A. 1066. In this year king Harold came from York to 
Westminster, at that Easter which was after the mid-winte 
in which the king died ; and Easter was then on tlie day 
16th before the Kalends of May. Then was, over all Eng 
land, such a token seen in the heavens, as no man ever 
before saw. Some men said that it was cometa the star, 
which some men call the haired star ; and it appeared first 
on the eve Litania Major, the 8th before the Kalends cf Ma^ 


and 80 shone all the seven nights. And soon after came In 
'J'osty the earl from beyond sea into the Isle of Wight, with 
80 great a fleet as he might procure ; and there they yielded 
him as well money as food. And king Harold, his brother, 
gathered so great a ship-force, and also a land-force, as no king 
here in the land had before done ; because it was made known 
to hira that William the bastard would come hither and win 
this land ; all as it afterwards happened. And the wliile, 
came Tosty the earl into Humber with sixty ships ; and 
Edwin the earl came with a land-force and di-ove him out. 
And the boatmen forsook him ; and he went to Scotland 
with twelve vessels. And there met him Harold king of 
Norway with three hundred ships ; and Tosty submitted to 
him and became his man. And they then went both into 
Humber, until they came to York ; and there fought against 
them Edwin the earl, and Morkar the earl, his brother : 
but the Northmen had the victory. Then was it made known 
to Harold king of the Angles that this had thus happened : 
and this battle was on the vigil of St. Matthew. Then came 
Harold our king unawares on the Northmen, and met with 
them beyond York, at Stanford-bridge, with a great army 
of Enghsh people ; and there during the day was a very 
severe fight on both sides. There was slain Harold the Fair- 
haired, and Tosty the earl ; and the Northmen who were there 
remaining were put to flight ; and the English from behind 
hotly smote them, until they came, some, to their ships, some 
were drowned, and some also burned ; and thus in divers 
ways they perished, so that there were few left : and the 
English had possession of the place of carnage. The king 
then gave his protection to Olave, son of the king of the Nor- 
wegians, and to their bishop, and to the earl of Orkney, and 
to all those who were left in the ships : and they then went 
up to our king, and swore oaths that they ever would observe 
peace and friendship towards this land ; and the king In.t 
them go home with twenty-four ships. These two general 
battles were fought within five days. Then came William 
earl of Normandy into Pevensey, on the eve of St. Michael's- 
mass : and soon after they were on their way, they construc- 
ted a castle at Hasting's-port. This was then made knowa 
to king Harold, and he then gathered a great force, and came 
to maet him at the estuary of Appledore ; and William came 


against him unawares, before his people were set in order. 
But the king nevertheless strenuously fought against liiiii 
with those men who would follow him ; and there was great 
slaughter made on either hand. There was slain king 
Harold, and Leofwin the earl, his brother, and Girth the 
earl, his brother, and many good men ; and the Frenchmen 
had possession of the place of carnage, all as God granted 
them for the people's sins. Archbishop Aldred and tlie 
townsmen of London would then have child Edgar for king, 
all as was his true natural right : and Edwin and Morcar 
vowed to him that they would fight together with him. But 
in that degree that it ought ever to have been forwarder, so 
was it from day to day later and worse ; so that at the end 
all passed away. This fight was done on the day of Calix- 
lus the pope. And William the earl went afterwards again 
to Hastings, and there awaited to see whether the people 
would submit to him. But when he understood that they 
would not come to him, he went upwards with all his army 
which was left to him, and that which afterwards had come 
from over sea to him ; and he plundered all that part which 
he over-ran, until he came to Berkhampstead. And there 
came to meet him archbishop Aldred,* and child Edgar, 
and Edwin the earl, and Morcar the earl, and aU the 
chief men of London ; and then submitted, for need, when 
the most harm had been done : and it was very unwise that 
they had not done so before ; since God would not better it, 
for our sins : and they delivered hostages, and swore oaths 
to him ; and he vowed to them that he would be a loving 
lord to them : and nevertheless, during this, they plundered 
all that they over-ran. Then, on mid-winter's day, arch- 
bishop Aldred consecrated him king at Westminster ; and he 
gave him a pledge upon Christ's book, and also swore, before 
he would set the crown upon his head, that he would govern 
this nation as well as any king before him had at the best 
done, if they would be faithful to him. Nevertheless, he 
laid a tribute on the people, very heavy ; and then went, du- 
ring Lent, over sea to Normandy, and took with him arch- 
bishop Stigand, and Aylnoth, abbat of Glastonbury, and 
child Edgar, and Edwin the earl, and Morkar the earl, 
4nd Waltheof the earl, and many other good men of Eng« 
• Of York. 


land. And bishop Odo* and William the earl remained here 
behind, and they built castles wide throughout the nation, 
and poor people distressed ; and ever after it greatly grew 
in evil. May the end be good when God will ! 

A. 1066. This year died king Edward, and Harold the earl succeeded 
to the kingdom, and held it forty weeks and one day. And this year came 
William, and won England. And in this year Christ-Church f was burned. 
And this year appeared a comet on the 14th before the Kalends of May. 

A. 1U66. . . . J And then he [Tosty] went thence, and did harm everywhere 
by the sea-coast where he could land, as far as Sandwich. Then was it 
made known to king Harold, who was in London, that Tosty his brother 
was come to Sandwich. Then gathered he so great a ship-force, and also 
a land force, as no king here in the land had before gathered, because it 
had been soothly said unto him, that William the earl from Normandy, 
king Edward's kinsman, would come hither and subdue this land: all as 
it afterwards happened. When Tosty learned that king Harold was 
on his way to Sandwich, then went he from Sandwich, and took some of 
the boatmen \vith him, some willingly and some unwillingly ; and went 
then north into Humber, and there ravaged in Lindsey, and there slew 
many good men. When Edwin the earl and Morcar the earl understood 
that, then came they thither, and drove him out of the land. And he went 
then to Scotland : and the king of Scots protected him, and assisted him 
with provisions ; and he there abode all the summer. Then came king 
Harold to Sandwich, and there awaited his fleet, because it was long before 
it could be gathered together. And when his fleet was gathered together, 
then went he into the Isle of Wight, and there lay all the summer and the 
harvest ; and a land-force was kept every where by the sea, though in the 
end it was of no benefit. When it was the Nativity of St. Mary, then were 
the men'r provisions gone, and no man could any longer keep them there. 
Then were the men allowed to go home, and the king rode up, and the 
ships were despatched to London ; and many perished before they came 
thither. When the ships had reached home, then came king Harold from 
Norway, north into Tyne, and unawares, with a very large ship-force, and 
no small one; that might be, or more. And Tosty the earl came to him 
with all that he had gotten, all as they had before agreed ; and then the)' 
went both, with all the fleet, along the Ouse, up towards York. Then was 
it made known to king Harold in the south, as he was come from on ship- 
board, that Harold king of Norway and Tosty the earl were landed near 
York. Then went he northward, day and night, as quickly as he couM 
gather his forces. Then, before that king Harold could come thither, then 
gathered Edwin the earl and Morcar the earl from their earldom as great a 
force as they could get together ; and they fought against the army, and 
made great slaughter : and there was much of the English people slain, 
and drowned, and driven away in flight ; and the Northmen had possession 
of the place of carnage. And this fight was on the vigil of St. Matthew 
the apostle, and it was Wednesday. And then, after the fight, went Ha- 
rold king of Norway, and Tosty the earl, into York, with as much people 
• Odo, bishop of Bayeux, half brother of king William, ani Wiliia^ 
Fit7. Osbert, created earl of Hereford. + Canterbury, 

^ Continued after '* money as food/' in page 440. 


as seemed meet to them. And they deh'vered hostages to them froix the 
city, and also assisted them with provisions ; and so they went tlience to 
their ships, and tliey agreed upon a full peace, so that they should all go 
with him south, and' this land subdue. Then, during this, came Harold 
king of the Angles, with, all his forces, on the Sunday, to Tadcaster, and 
there drew up his force, and went then on Monday throughout York ; and 
Harold king of Norway, and Tosty the earl, and their forces, were gone 
from their ships beyond York to Stanfordbridge, because it had been pro- 
mised them for a certainty, that there, from all the shire, hostages should 
be brought to meet them. Then came Harold king of the English against 
them, unawares, beyond the bridge, and they there joined battle, and very 
Btrenuously, for a long time of the day, continued fighting : and there was 
Harold king of Norway and Tosty the earl slain, and nnmberless of tl>e 
people with them, as well of the Northmen as of the English : and the 
Northmen fled from the English. Then was there one of the Norwegians 
who withstood the English people, so that they might not pass over tlie 
bridge, nor obtain the victory. Then an Englishman aimed at him witn a 
javelin, but it availed nothing ; and then came another under the bridge, and 
pierced him terribly inwards under the coat of mail. Then came Harold, 
king of the English, over the bridge, and his forces onward with him, and 
there made great slaughter, as well of Norwegians as of Flemings. And 
the king's son, Edmund, Harold let go home to Norway, with all the ships. 
A. 1066, In this year was consecrated the minster at Westminster, on 
Childer-mass-tlay. And king Edward died, on the eve of Twelfth-day ; 
and he was buried on Twelfth-day, within the newly consecrated church at 
Westminster. And Harold the earl succeeded to the kingdom of England, 
even as the king had granted it to him, and men also had chosen him 
thereto ; and he was cro\vned as king on Twelfth-day. And that same year 
that he became king, he went out with a fleet against William ;* and the 
while, came Tosty the earl into Humber with sixty ships. Edwin the earl 
came with a land-force and drove him out ; and the boatmen forsook him. 
And he went to Scotland with twelve vessels ; and Harold the king of Nor- 
way met him with three hundred ships, and Tosty suljmitted to him ; and 
they both went into Humber, until they came to York. And Morcar tlie 
earl, and Edwin the eai-1, fought against them ; and the king of the NorAve- 
gians had the victory. And it was made known to king Harold how it 
there was done, and had happened ; and he came there with a great army 
of English men, and met him at Stanfordbridge, and slew him and the e^irl 
Tosty, and boldly overcame a'l the army. And the while, William the 
earl landed at Hastings, on St. Michael's-day : and Harold came from the 
north, and fought against him before all his army had come up : and there 
he fell, and his two brothers. Girth and Leofwin ; and William subdued 
this land. And he came to Westminster, and archbishop Aldred conse- 
crated him king, and men paid him tribute, and delivered him hostages, 
and afterwards bought their land. And then was Leofric abbat of Peter- 
borough in that same expedition ; and there he sickened, and came home, 
and was dead soon thereafter, on All-hallows- mass-night; God be merciful 
to his soul ! In his day was all bliss and all good in Peterborough ; and 
he was dear to all people, so that the king gave to St. Peter and to him 
the abbacy at Bmton, and that of Coventry, which Leofric the earl, who 

* Earl of Normandy. 


was Ilk uncle, before had made, and that of Crowland, and that of Thor- 
ney. And he conferred so much of good upon the minster of Feter- 
Dorough, in gold, and in silver, and im vestments, and in land, as never any 
other did before him, nor any after him. After, Golden-borough became 
a wretched borough. Then chose the monks for abbat Brand the provost, 
by reason that he was a very good man, and very wise, and sent him then 
to Edgar the etheling, by reason that the people of the land supposed that 
he should become king: and the etheling granted it him then gladly. 
When king William heard say that, then was he very wroth, and said that 
the abbat had despised him. Then went good men between them, and 
reconciled them, by reason that the abbat was a good man. Then gave he 
the king forty marks of gold for a reconciliation ; and then thereafter, 
lived he a little while, but three years. After that came every tribulatior 
and every evil to the minster. God have mercy on it ! 

A. 1067. This year the king came back to England on 
St. Nieolas's day, and on the same day Christ's Church, 
Canterbury, was consumed by fire. Bishop Wulfwy also 
died, and lies buried at his see of Dorche.'^ter. Child Edric 
and the Britons were unsettled this year, and fought with 
the men of the castle at Hereford, to whom they did much 
harm. The king this year imposed a heavy tax on the 
unfortunate people ; but, notwithstanding, he let his men 
plunder all the country which they passed through : after 
which he marched to Devonshire and besieged Exeter 
eighteen days. Many of his army were slain there : but he 
had promised them well and performed ill : the citizens 
surrendered the city, because the thanes had betrayed them. 
This summer the child Edgar, with his mother Agatha, his 
sisters Margaret and Christina, Merlesweyne and several 
good men, went to Scotland under the protection of king 
Malcolm, who received them all. Then it was that king 
Malcolm desired to have Margaret to wife: but, the child 
Edgar and all his men refused for a long time : and 
she herself also was unwilling, saying that she would have 
neither him nor any other person, if God would allow her to 
serve him with her carnal heart, in strict continence, during 
this short life. But the king urged her brother until he said 
yes ; and indeed he did not dare to refuse, for they were now 
in Malcolm's kingdom. So that the marriage was now 
fulfilled, as God had foreordained, and it could not be 
otherwise, as he says in the Gospel, that not a sparrow falls 
to the ground, without his foreshowing. The prescient 
Creator knew long befoie what he would do with her 


namely that slie should increase the glory of God in thiH 
land, lead the king out of the wrong into the right path, 
bring him and his people to a better way, and suppress all 
the bad customs which the nation formerly followed. These 
things sh3 afterwards accomplished. The king therefore 
married her, though against her will, and was pleased with 
her manners, and thanked God who had given him such a 
wife. And being a prudent man he turned himself to God 
and forsook all impurity of conduct, as St. Paul, the apostle 
of the Gentiles, says : " Salvabitur vir^"* SfC. which means in 
our language " Full oft the unbelieving husband is sanctified 
and healed through the believing wife, and so belike the wife 
through the believing husband." The queen above-named 
afterwards did many things in this land to promote the glory 
of God, and conducted herself well in her noble rank, as 
always was her custom. She was sprung from a noble line 
of ancestors, and her father was Edward Etheling, son of 
king Edmund. This Edmund was the son of Ethelred, who 
was the son of Edgar, the son of Edred ; and so on in that 
royal line. Her maternal kindred traces up to the emperor 
Henry, who reigned at Rome. 

This year Harold's mother, Githa, and the wives of many 
good men with her, went to the Steep Holmes, and th^re 
abode some time ; and afterwards went from thence over sea 
to St. Omer's. 

This Easter the king came to Winchester ; and Easter was 
then on the tenth day before the Kalends of April. Soon 
after this the lady Matilda came to this country, and arch- 
bishop Eldred consecrated her queen at Westminster on 
Whitsunday. It was then told the king, that the people in 
the North had gathered together and would oppose him 
there. Upon this he went to Nottingham, and built a castle 
there, and then advanced to York, where he built two castles : 
he then did the same at Lincoln, and everywhere in those 
parts. Then earl Cospatric and all the best men went into 
Scotland. During these things one of Harold's sons came 
with a fleet from Ireland unexpectedly into the mouth of the 
river Avon, and soon plundered all that neighbourhood. 
They went to Bristol, and would have stormed the town, but 
the inhabitants opposed them bravely. Seeing they oould 
get nothing from the town, they went to their ships with th« 

144 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.b. iocs, wea. 

booty thpy had got by plundering, and went to Somersetshire, 
where they went up the country. Ednoth, master of the 
horse, fought with them, but he was slain there, and many 
^ood men on both sides ; and thosft who were left departed 

A. 1068. This year king William gave the earldom of 
Northumberland to earl Robert, and the men of that country 
came against him, and slew him and 900 others with him. 
And then Edgar etheling marched with all the Northum- 
brians to York, and the townsmen treated with him ; on 
which king William came from the south with all his troops, 
and sacked the town, and slew many hundred persons. He 
also profaned St. Peter's minster, and all other places, and 
the etheling went back to Scotland. 

After this came Harold's sons from Ireland, about Mid 
summer, with sixty-four ships and entered the mouth of the 
Taff, where they incautiously landed. Earl Beorn camt, 
upon them unawares with a large army, and slew all their 
bravest men : the others escaped to their ships, and Harold*3 
sons went back again to Ireland. 

A. 1069. This year died Aldred archbishop of York, and 
he lies buried in his cathedral church. He died on the 
festival of Protus and Hyacinthus, having held the see with 
much honour ten years, all but fifteen weeks. 

Soon after this, three of the sons of Sweyne came from 
Denmark with 240 ships, together with earl Osbern and 
earl Thorkill, into the Humber ; where they were met by 
child Edgar and earl Waltheof, and Merle- Sweyne, and 
earl Cospatric with the men of Northumberland and all the 
landsmen, riding and marching joyfully with an immense 
army ; and so tiiey went to York, demolished the castle, and 
found there large treasures. They also slew many hundred 
Frenchmen, and carried off many prisoners to their ships ; 
but, before the shipmen came thither, the Frenchmen had 
burned the city, and plundered and burnt St. Peter's minster. 
When the king heard of this, he went northward with all 
the troops he could collect, and laid waste all the shire ; 
whilst the fleet lay all the winter in the Huinber, where the 
king could not get at them. The king was at York on 
midwinter's day, remaining on land all the winter, and at 
Easter he came to Winchester, 


Tliis year bishop Egelric being at Peterboroiigh, wag 
accused and sent to Westminster ; and his brother bishop 
Egehvin was outlawed. And the same year Brand abbat 
of Peterborough died on the fifth before the Kalends of 

A. 1070. This year Lanfranc abbat of Caen came to 
England, and in a few days he was made archbishop of 
Canterbury. He was consecrated * at his metropolis on the 

• In the second year after Lanfranc's consecration he went to Home, 
pope Alexander so greatly honoured him, that contrary to his custom lie 
rose to meet him, and gave him two palls in token of especial favour : 
Lanfranc received one of them from the altar after the Roman manner, 
and the pope, with his own hands, gave him the other, in which he himself 
had been accustomed to perform mass. In the presence of the pope, 
Thomas brought forwards a calumny touching the primacy of the see of 
Canterbury, and the subjection of certain bishops. Lanfranc briefly and 
clearly states the conclusion to which this affair Avas afterwards brought in 
England, in an epistle to the aforesaid pope Alexander. This year a 
general council was held at Winchester, in which he deposed Wulfric, 
abbat of the new monastery, and made m.any regulations touching Christian 
discipline. A few days afterwards, he consecrated Osbem at London as 
bishop of Exeter, and Scotland at Canterbury as abbat of St. Augustine's. 

In his third year he consecrated Peter at Gloucester as bishop of Lich- 
field or Chester. This year also a great council was held at a place called 
Pennenden Heath [near Maidstone], in which Lanfranc proved that he 
and his church held their lands and their rights by sea and by land, as 
freely as the king held his : excepting in three cases : to wit, if the highway 
be dug up ; if a tree be cut so as to fall upon it ; and if murder be com- 
mitted and blood spilt : when a man is taken in these misdeeds, the fine 
paid shall belong to the king ; otherwise their vassals shall be free from 
regal exactions. 

In his fourth year he consecrated Patrick at London as bishop of Dublin, 
in Ireland, from whom he received a profession of obedience, and he 
moreover gave him very memorable letters to the kings of Ireland. 

In his fifth year a general council was held at London, the proceedings 
of which Lanfranc committed to \vriting, at the request of many. 

In his sixth year he gave the bishopric of Rochester to Emost, a monk 
of Christ church, whom he also consecrated at London. A council waa 
held at Winchester : and the same year Emost departed this life. 

In his seventh year, he gave the bishopric of Rochester to Gundulph, 
whom lie consecrated at Canterbury. This year Thomas archbishop of 
York sent letters to Lanfranc, requesting that he would send two bishops 
to consecrate a certain priest, who had come to him with letters from the 
Orkneys, to the intent that he might be made bishop of those islands, 
Lanfranc consenting to this, commanded Wolstan bishop of Worcester, 
end Peter bishop of Chester, to go to York, and to assist Thomas in com- 
pleting the ceremony. 

In his eighth year, a council was held at London, in which Lanfi'aiic 
deposed Ailnoth abbat of Glabiojibury. 


fourtji before the Kalends of September, by eight bishops 
hi3 suffhigans ; the rest who were absent signifying 
through messengers, and by writing, why they could not be 

In his eleventh year, a council was held at Gloucester, wherein, by the 
king's order, and with the consent of Lanfranc, Thomas archbishop of 
York consecrated William to the bishopric of Dvu-ham ; and because he 
could not be attended by the Scotch bishops his suffragans, the bishops 
Wolstan, Osbem, Giso, and Robert assisted at this ceremony by the com- 
mand of Lanfranc. At this time Lanfranc sent letters rich in sacred lore 
to bishop Donald in Ireland. 

In his sixteenth year Lanfranc consecrated Donatus, his monk at 
Canterbury, to the bishopric of Dublin, by the desire of the king, clergy, 
end people of Ireland. This year a council was held at Gloucester, 
wherein Lanfranc deposed Wulstcetel abbat of Croyland. He consecrated 
Robert to the bishopric of Chester, and William to that of Elmham, in 
one day, at Canterbury. At Winchester also he consecrated Maurice as 
bishop of London, who brought noble gifts to his mother church at Can- 
terbiu-y a few davs afterwards. 

In the eightet-'iith year of Lanfranc's prelacy, on the death of king 
William beyond sea, he acknowledged his son William, as he had done his 
father, and consecrated and crowned him in St. Peter's chiu-ch, which is ir. 
the western part of London. The same year, and at his metropolitan city 
of Canterbury, he examined and consecrated Godfrey as bishop of 
Chichester, Wydo also as abbat of St. Augustine's and John as bishop of 
Wells. The next day Lanfranc on his own authority, and taking vnth him 
Odo bishop of Bayeux the king's brother, who was then at Canterbury, 
conducted the abbat Wydo to St. Augustine's and commanded the brothers 
of the order to receive him as their own abbat and pastor ; but they, with 
•ne accord, answered that they would neither submit to him nor receive 
nim. Thus Lanfranc came leading the abbat, and when he found that the 
moi.ks were obstinate in resistance, and that they would not obey him, ho 
commanded that all the refractory should come out one by one. When 
therefore nearly all had left the monastery, Lanfranc and his suite led in 
the abbat with much pomp, placed him in the chair, and delivered the 
church up to him. He also seized the prior, Elfrin by name, and as many 
others as he thought fit, and he put them forth'vvith into claustral imprison- 
ment at Canterbury ; but he sent those who had the greatest influence, and 
were the authors of this scandal, to the castle to be confined there. Afler 
he had returned home having finished all, he was informed that the monks 
who had left the monastery were assembled, near St. Mildred's church. 
Hereupon he sent to them, saying, that if they would, they might return 
to the church before the ninth hoiu-, but that if they delayed longer, they 
would not be allowed free entrance, but he treated as renegadoes. Having 
heard this message they doubted whether to return or to remain, bi t at the 
hour of refection, when they became hungry, many repenting of their 
obstinacy sent to Lanfranc and promised submission. These he treated 
with lenity, and desired that tney should return directly and confinn by 
oath their profession of obedience to the aforesaid abbat. Thus they 
returaed and iwore feithfulness and obedience to the abbat Wydo, upoa 


there. This year Thomas, who had been chosen as bishop 
of York, came to Canterbury, that he might be consecrated 
there after the old form, but when Lanfranc craved tiie 

the relics of St. Augustine. Lanfranc seized those who remained beliind 
and placed them in various monasteries of England, confining them till he 
brought them to profess their submission. About the same lime, he seized 
one of them named Alfred, who had attempted to flee, and confined him 
loaded with irons at Canterbury, together with some of his fellows : and he 
exercised upon them the utmost severity of their order. But when these 
monks were thought to be sufficiently humbled and had promised amend- 
ment, Lanfranc taking pity on them, had them brought from the several 
places whither he had banished them, and reconciled them to their abbat. 

The same year the dissensions were renewed, and the monks plotted the 
death of their abbat, but one of them, named Columban, being taken, 
Lanfranc caused him to be brought to him. As he stood there before him, 
Lanfranc asked if he desired to murder his abbat. And the monk forth- 
with replied, " Yes ! if I could I would certainly kill him." Then Lan- 
franc commanded that he should be tied up naked by the gates of St. 
Augustine's and suffpr flagellation before all the people, that his cowi 
should then be torn off, and that he should be driven out of the city. Tliia 
order was executed, and thenceforth, during Lanfranc's life, sedition waa 
repressed by the dread of his severity. 

In the nineteenth year of his prelacy, died the venerable archbishop 
Lanfranc, and he was buried at his metropolitan see of Canterbury, of 
which he had been possessed eighteen years, nine months, and two days. 
Hii deeds, his buildings, alms, and labours, are only in part recounted in 
the writing which is read on his anniversary, for they were very numerous. 
After his death the monks of St. Augustine's, openly rebelling against their 
aforesaid abbat Wydo, stirred up the citizens of Canterbury, who, with an 
armed force, attempted to slay him in his house. But his family made 
resistance, and when many had been wounded, and some killed on both 
sides, the abbat with much difficulty escaped unhurt from amongst them, 
and fled for refuge to the mother church of Canterbury (Christ's church.) 
On the report of this disturbance Walkelin bishop of Winchester, and 
Gundolf bishop of Rochester, suffragans to the see of Canterbury, with 
B<irae noblemen sent by the king, hastened to Canterbury, that they might 
take vengeance on the delinquents ; and when they had inquired into the 
causes of the sedition, and had found the monks unable to clear themselves, 
they condemned them to suffer public punishment because they had trans- 
gressed openly. But the prior and monks of Christ's church, moved with 
piety, pleaded against the sentence, lest, if they were to receive theii 
discipline before all the people, they should henceforth be accounted 
infamous, and so their profession and office come to be despised. Where- 
fore it was granted on their intercession, that the punishment should take 
place in the church, into which the populace should not be admitted, but 
those only who were appointed to see it executed. And two monks of 
Christ's church, Wydo and Norman, were called in, and they inflicted the 
puniahment at the command of the bishops. Then the rebellio\i8 monks 
were dispersed into various monasteries of England; and twentv-four mouki 


148 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHPvON-ICLE. a. p. 10:0. 

confirmation of his Bubjection by oath, he refused, and said 
that he was not obliged to give it. Then was the archbishop 
Lanfranc wroth, and he commanded the bishops, who were 
there at his behest to assist at the ceremony, and all the 
monks, to unrobe themselves ; and they did as he desired ; 
so this time Thomas returned home without consecration. It 
happened soon after this, that the archbishop Lanfranc went 
to Rome, and Thomas with him : and when they were come 
ihither, and had said all that they desired on other subjects, 
Tliomas began his speech, saying how he had come to 
Canterbury, and how the archbishop had desired of him an 
oath of obedience, and that he had refused it. Then tlie 
archbishop Lanfranc began to make manifest with clear 
reasoning, that he had a right to demand that which he 
required : and he proved the same with strong arguments 
before the Pope Alexander, and before all the council then 
assembled : and thus they departed home. After this, 
Thomas came to Canterbury, and humbly performed all that 
the archbishop required, and thereupon he received the 
blessing. This year earl Waltheof made peace with the 
king. And during Lent in the same year the king caused all 
the monasteries in England to be despoiled of their treasures. 
The same year king Sweyn came from Denmark into the 
Humber, and the people of those parts came to meet him and 
made an alliance with him, for they believed that he would 
conquer the land. Then the Danish bishop Christien, and 
earl Osbern, and their Danish retainers, came into Ely, and 
all the people of the fens joined them, for they believed that 
they should conquer the wliole country. Now the monks of 
Peterborougli were told that some of their own men, namely, 

of Christ's church were substituted in their place, together witli the prior, 
named Anthony, who had been sub-prior at Christ's church. The townsmen 
wlio entered the abbat's hall in amis were seized, and those who were con- 
victed of having struck him lost their eyes. 

After the death of Lanfranc the see remained vacant four years, nine 
months, and nine days, during which time it suffered much adversity. At 
length, in the year of our Lord's incarnation 109^5, and on the second before 
the Nones of March, the archbishopric of Canterbuiy was given to Anselm 
abbat of Bee, a good and an upright man, of great learning, and amongst 
the most noted of his time. He came to Canterbury on the seventh before 
*.he Kalends of October, hia earlier arrival having been prevented by many 
riiftcient causes, and he was consecrated on the second before the N<mea at 


Hor(?ward and liis train, would pillage the monastery, because 
they had lieard that tlie king had given the abbacy to a 
French abbat named Turohl, and tliat he was a very stera 
man, and that he was come into Stamford with all his French 
followers. There was, at that time, a church-warden named 
Ywar ; who took all that he could by night, gospels, mass- 
robes, cassocks, and other garments, and such other small 
things as he could carry away, and he came before day to the 
abbat Turold, and told him that he sought his protection, and 
told how the outlaws were coming to Peterborough, and he 
said that he had done this at the desire of the monks. Then 
early in the morning all the outlaws came with many ships, 
and they endeavoured to enter the monastery, but the monks 
withstood them, so that they were not able to get in. Then 
they set fire to it, and burned all the monks' houses, and all 
those in the town, save one : and they broke in through the 
fire at Bolhithe-gate,* and the monks came before them and 
desired peace. However they gave no heed to them, but 
went into the monastery, and climbed up to the holy crucifix, 
took the crown from our Lord's head, which was all of the 
purest gold, and the footstool of red gold from under his 
feet. And tlry climbed up to the steeple, and brought down 
the table f which was hidden there ; it was all of gold and 
silver. They also seized two gilt shrines, and nine of silver, 
and they carried off fifteen great crosses of gold and silver. 
And they took so much gold and silver, and so much trc*asure 
in money, robes, and books, that no man can compute the 
amount ; saying they did this because of their allegiance to 
the monastery : and afterwards they betook themselves to 
their ships and went to Ely, where they secured their 
treasures. The Danes believed that they should overcome the 
Frenchmen, and they drove away all the monks, leaving only 
one named Leofwin the Long, and he lay sick in the hospital. 
Then came the abbat Turold, and eight score Frenchmen 
with him, all well armed ; and when he arrived he found all 
burnt both within and without, excepting the church itself ; 
and all the outlaws were then embarked, knowing that he 
would come thither. This happened on the fourth day before 

• Bull dyke Gate. 

t Ingram so translates the word, referring to a Gallo-Nonnan poein 
jMtbli&hed by Sharpe. Gibson, Lye, and Miss Gurney reiid " cope." 


the Nones of June. Then the two kings, William and Sweyn, 
made peace with each other, on which the Danes departed 
from Ely, carrying witli them all the aforesaid treasure. 
When they were come into the midst of the sea, there arose 
a great storm, which di.s))ersed all the ships in which the 
treasures were : some were driven to NorM^ay, some to 
Ireland, and others to Denmark, and all the spoils that 
reached the latter country, being the table* and some of the 
filirines and crosses, and many of the other treasures, they 

brought to one of the king's towns called , and laid it all 

up in the church. But one night, through their carelessness 
and drunkenness the church was burned, with all that was in 
it. Thus was the monastery of Peterborough burned and 
pillaged. May Ahnighty God have pity on it in his great 
mercy ; and tlius the abl^at Turold came to Peterborough, 
and the monks returnetl thither and performed Christian 
worship in the church, wliicii had stood a full week without 
biervice of any kind. When bishop Egelricf heard this, he 
excommunicated all the men who had done this eviL There 
was a great famine this year ; and this summer the fleet from 
the Humber sailed into the Thames, and lay there two nights, 
and it afterwards held on its course to Denmark. And earl 
Baldwin died, and his son Arnulf succeeded him ; and earl 
William I and the French king should have been his support : 
but earl Robert came and slew his kinsman Arnulf, and the 
earl ; put the king to flight, and slew many thousands of his 

A. 1071. This year earl Edwin and earl Morcar fled, and 
wandered through the woods and fields. Then earl Morcar 
took ship and went to Ely ; and earl Edwin was slain 
treacherously by his own men : and bishop Egelwine,§ and 
Siward Barn, and many hundreds with them, came into Ely. 
And when king William heard this, he called out a fleet and 
army ; and he surrounded that land, and he made a bridge 
and entered in, his fleet lying off the coast. Then all the 
outlaws surrendered ; these were, bishop Egelwine and earl 
Morcar, and all who were with them, excepting only 
Hereward, and his followers whom he led off with great 
valour. And the king seized their sliips, and arms, and much 

• Or cope : see the last notM- t Of Selsey. 

/ i^Hi-Osbeme. $ Of Durham. 

A.D. 1071-1074. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. ir,i 

treasure ; and he disposed of the men as he would ; and he 
Bent bishop Egelwine to Abingdon, where he died early ia 
the winter. 

A. 1072. This year king William led an army and a fleet 
against Scotland, and he stationed the ships along the coast 
and crossed the Tweed with his array; but he found nothing 
to reward his pains. And king Malcolm came and treated 
with king William, and delivered hostages, and became his 
liege-man ; and king William returned home with his forces. 
Bishop Egelric died this year ; he had been consecrated to 
the archbishopric of York, of which he was unjustly 
deprived, and the see of Durham was given to him ; this he 
held as long as he chose, and then resigned it and went to 
the monastery of Peterborough, and there he spent twelve 
years. Then after king William had conquered England, 
he removed Egelric from Peterborough, and sent him to 
Westminster, and he died on the Ides of October, and he ia 
buried in the abbey, in the aisle of St. Nicholas. 

A. 1073. This year king William carried an army of 
English and French over sea, and conquered the province of 
Maine : and the English did great damage, for tiiey destroyed 
the vineyards and burned the towns, and they laid waste that 
province, the whole of which submitted to William ; and 
they afterwards returned home to England. 

A. 1074 This year king William went over sea to 
Normandy ; and child Edgar came into Scotland from 
Flanders on St. Grimbald's mass-day. King Malcolm 
and Margaret his sister received him there with much 
pomp. Also Philip, king of France, sent him a letter 
inviting him to come, and offering to give him the castle 
of Montreuil, as a place to annoy his enemies from. After 
this, king Malcolm and his sister Margaret gave great 
presents and much treasure to him and his men, skins 
adorned with purple, sable-skin, grey-skin and ermine-skin- 
pelisses, mantles, gold and silver vessels, and escorted them 
out of his dominions with much ceremony. But evil befell 
them at sea ; for they had hardly left the shore, when such 
rough weather came on, and the sea and wind drove them 
with such force upon the land, that their ships went to pieces 
and they saved their lives with much difficulty. They lost 
Dearly all their riches and some of their men were taken ]ij 

152 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. wi, 1075. 

the French : but the boldest of them escaped back tO Scat- 
land, some on foot and some mounted on wretched horsea. 
King Malcolm advised Edgar to send to king William 
beyond the sea, and request his friendship. Edgar did so, 
and the king acceded to his request and sent to fetch him. 
Again, king Malcolm and his sister made them handsome 
presents, and escorted them with honour out of their 
dominions. The sheriff of York met him at Durham, and 
went all the way with him, ordering him to be provided with 
meat and fodder at all the castles which they came to, until 
they reached the king beyond the sea. There king WilHam 
received him with much pomp, and he remained at the court, 
enjoying such privileges as the king granted him. 

A. 1075. This year king William gave the daughter of 
William Fitz-Osberne in marriage to earl Ralph : the said 
Ralph was a Welchman on his mother's side, and his father 
was an Englishman named Ralph, and born in Norfolk. 
Then the king gave the earldom of Norfolk and Suffolk tc 
his son, who brought his wife to Norwich, but 

There was that bride-ale 
The source of man's bale. 

For earl Roger and earl Waltheof were there, and bishops 
and abbats, and they took counsel to depose the king of 
England. And this was soon reported to the king then in 
Normandy, and it was told him withal that earl Roger and 
earl Ralph were the heads of the conspiracy, and that they 
had brought over the Britons to their side, and had sent 
eastward to Denmark for a fleet to assist them. And earl 
Roger departed to his earldom in the west, and gathered his 
people together in rebellion against the king, but he was 
checked in his attempt. And earl Ralph also being in his 
earldom would have marched forth with his people ; but the 
garrisons of the castles of England, and the inhabitants of 
the country came against him, and prevented his effecting 
any thing, on which he took ship at Norwich : and his wife 
remained in the castle, and held it till she had obtained terms, 
and then she departed from England with all her adherents. 
And after this the king came to England, and he took his 
kinsman earl Roger and put him in prison ; and earl 
Waltheof went over the sea and betrayed himself but ho 


Mked forgiveness and offered a ransom. The king let him 
off lightly until he came to England, when he had him 
seized. And soon afterwards two hundred ships arrived 
from Denmark, commanded by two chieftains, Canute the 
son of Swejn, and earl Hacco, but they durst not risk a 
battle with king William, but chose rather to go to York, 
where they broke into St. Peter's minster, and having taken 
thence much treasure, went away again. They then crossed 
over the sea to Flanders, but all who had been concerned in 
the act perished, namely earl Hacco and many others with 
him. And the lady Edgitha died at Winchester seven nights 
before Christmas, and the king caused her to be brought to 
Westminster with great pomp, and to be laid by her lord 
king Edward. And the king was at W^estininster during 
Christmas, and there all the Britons who had been at the 
bridal feast at Norwich were brought to justice ; some were 
blinded, and others banished. Thus were the traitors to 
William subdued. 

1076. Tliis year Sweyn king of Denmark died, and Harold 
his son succeeded to the kingdom. And the king gave 
Westminster to Vitalis, who had before been abbat of Bernay.* 
Earl Waltheof was beheaded at Winchester on the mass-day 
of St. Petronilla, f and his body was carried to Croyland, 
where it now lies. And the king went over sea and led his 
army into Brittany, and besieged the castle of Dol, and the 
Britons defended it till the king of France came up, and then 
WilKam departed, having lost both men and horses and 
much treasure. 

• Or Bemej^es. A cell to the abbey of Fescarnp, in Normandy. 

t "II. Kal. Jun. or the 31st of May. This notice of St. Petronilla, 
whose name and existence seem scarcely to have been known to the Latin 
historians, we owe exclusively to the valuable iVIS. c. t. b. iv. Yet if ever 
female saint deserved to be commemorated as a conspicuous example of 
early piety and Christian zeal, it must be Petronilla. She was no less a 
person than the daughter of St. Peter himself; wlio, being solicited to 
marry a nobleman at Rome of the name of Flaccus, and on her refusai 
allowed three days to deliberate, after passing the whole time in fasting arv3 
prayer, and receiving the sacrament at the hands of Nicomedes the prie^ 
expired on the third day ! This is no Romish lecjend of modem gro\vt*s, 
for her name appears in the martyrology of Bede, and in the mos* 
venerable records of primitive Christianity." — Ingram. And yet, tlw 
reader, who shall receive even the existence of Petronilla in any other light 
thaii as a fable, must possess a credulity which will enable him to realixo 
ftii the impostures mnth which ecclesiastical history abounds. 

151 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. lorr-ioso. 

1077. This year a peace was made between the king of 
France and William king of England, but it lasted only a 
little while. And this year, one night before the assumption 
of St. Mary, there was a more dreadful fire in London than 
had ever happened since the town was built. And the moon 
was eclipsed, three nights before candlemas : the same year 
died Egelwig abbat of Evesham, on the fourteenth day 
before the Kalends of March, which was the mass-day of St. 
Juliana ; and Walter became bishop in his stead. Bishop 
Herman also died on the tenth day before the Kalends of 
March. He was bishop in Berkshire, Wiltshire, and Dorset- 
shire. Also in this year king Malcolm won the mother of 
Malslaythe and all his best men and all his treasure and his 
oxen and himself hardly escaped .... There was also this 
year a dry summer, and wild-fire burned many towns, and 
many cities were ruined by it. 

A. 1078. 

A. 1079. This year king William's son Robert, fled from 
his father to his uncle Robert in Flanders, because liis father 
would not let him govern his earldom in Normandy ; wliich 
he himself, and with his consent Philip king of France, had 
given to him. The best men of that land had sworn 
allegiance to him and taken him for their lord. And the 
same year king William fought against his son Robert 
without the borders of Normandy near a castle called 
Gerberoy, and there king WilHam was wounded, and tlie 
horse on which he sat was killed, and he that brought him 
another horse, namely, Tookie Wiggodson, was killed with a 
dart, and his son William was also wounded, and many 
men were slain, but Robert returned to Flanders. We will 
not say more at present of the harm that he did to his 

This year, between the two festivals of St. Mary, king 
Malcolm invaded England with a large army, and laid waste 
Northumberland as far as the Tyne ; and he slew many hun- 
dred men, and carried home much money and treasure and 
many prisoners. 

A. 1080. This year Walcher bishop of Durham was slain 
at a gemot, and a hundred French and Flemings with him : 
Walcher himself was born in Lorraine. The Northumbrianj 
j,^rpetrated this in the month of May. 


A. 108L This year the king led an army into Wales, ana 
there he set free many hundred persons. 

A. 1082. This year the king arrested bishop Odo. AihI 
there was a great famine this year. 

A. 1083. This year a quarrel arose in Glastonbury be- 
tween the abbat Thurstan and his monks. It was first 
caused by the abbat's unwise conduct, in that he treated his 
monks ill in many respects, but the monks were lovingly- 
minded towards him, and begged him to govern them in 
right and in kindness, and tliey would be faithful and obe- 
dient to him. But the abbat would none of this, and 
wrought them evil, and tlireatened worse. One day the 
abbat went into the chapter-house, and spoke against the 
monks, and would have taught them amiss ;* and lie sent 
for laymen, and they came in all armed upon the monks in 
the chapter-house. Then the monks were greatly terrified 
and knew not what to do, and some ran for refuge into the 
church and locked the doors from within ; but the others 
followed them, and would have dragged them forth when 
they durst not come out. Rueful things happened there on 
that day, for the French broke into the choir and threw 
darts towards the altar Avhere the monks were collected, 
and some of their servants went upon the upper floor f and 
shot down arrows towards the chancel, so that many arrows 
stuck in the crucifix which stood above the altar, and the 
wretched monks lay around the altar, and some crept under 
it, and they called earnestly upon God and besought his 
mercy, since they could obtain no mercy at the hands of 
men. What can we say, but that they shot without ceasing, 
and others broke down the doors, and rushed in, and they 
slew some of the monks and wounded many, so that the 
blood ran down from the altar on the steps, and from the 
steps to the floor ? Three were smitten to death and eigh- 
"^een wounded. And the same year Matilda the wife of king 
William died on the day after the feast of All Saints. And 
the same year after Christmas the king caused a great and 
heavy tax to be raised throughout England, even seventy- 
two pence upon every hide of land. 

• He wished to substitute the chant of William of Feschamp for that 
called the Gregorian. 

+ Probably alon.n; the open galleries in the upper story of the choii, 
•onunonly called the triforium. 

156 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. los*. 1035. 

A. 1084. This year Wulfwold abbat of Chertsey iied on 
the 1 3th day before the Kalends of May. 

A. 1085. This year men said and reported as certain, that 
Canute king of Denmark, the son of king Sweyn, was coming 
hither, and that he designed to conquer this land, with the 
assistance of Robert earl of Flanders, whose daughter he 
had married. When king William, who was then in Nor- 
mandy, heard tliis, for England and Normandy were both 
his, he hastened hither with a larger army of horse and foot, 
from France and Brittany, than had ever arrived in this 
land, so that men wondered how the country could feed 
them all. But the king billeted the soldiers upon his sub- 
jects throughout the nation, and they provided for them, 
every man according to the land that he possessed. And 
the people suffered much distress this year: and the king 
caused the country near the sea to be laid waste, that if his 
enemies landed they might the less readily find any plunder. 
Afterwards when he had received certain information that 
they had been stopped,* and that they would not be able to 
proceed in this enterprise, he let part of his forces return to 
their own homes, and he kept part in this laud through the 
winter. At midwinter the king was at Gloucester with liis 
witan ; and he held his court there five days ; and afterwards 
the archbishop and clergy held a synod during three days ; 
and Maurice was there chosen to the bishopric of London, 
William to that of Norfolk, and Robert to that of Cheshire ; 
t,hey were all clerks of the king. After this the king had a 
great consultation, and spoke very deeply with his witan 
concerning this land, how it was held and what were its 
tenantry. He then sent his men over all England, into 
every shire, and caused them to ascertain how many hun- 
dred hides of land it contained, and what lands the king 
possessed therein, what cattle there were in the several 
counties, and how much revenue he ought to receive yearly 
from each. He also caused them to write down how much 
land belonged to his archbishops, to his bishops, his abbats, 
and his earls, and, that I may be brief, what property every 

• Because there was a mutiny in the Danish fleet; which was earned 
to such a height, that the king, after his return to Denmark, was slain by 
his own soldiers. Vide Antiq. Celto^cand. p. 22li. See also our Chron* 

k;l<^ A.D. 1087. — INGRAM. 

A.D. 1088,1087. THE xiNGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 157 

inhabitant of all England possessed in land or in cattle, and 
how much money this was wortli. So very narrowly did l;e 
cause the survey to be made, that there was not a single 
hide nor a rood of land, nor — it is shameful to relate that 
which he thought no shame to do — was there an ox, or a 
cow, or a pig passed by, and that was not set down in the 
accounts,* and then all these writings were brought to him. 

A. 1086. This year the king wore his crown and held his 
court at Winchester at Easter, and he so journeyed forward 
that he was at Westminster during Pentecost, and there he 
dubbed his son Henry a knight. And afterwards he tra- 
velled about, so that he came to Salisbury at Lammas ; and 
liis witiin, and all the land-holders of substance in England, 
whose vassals soever they were, repaired to him there, and 
they all submitted to him, and became his men, and swore 
oaths of allegiance, that they would be faithful to him 
against all others. Thence he proceeded to the Lsle of 
Wight because he was to cross over to Normandy ; and 
this he afterwards did; but first, according to his custom, 
he extorted immense sums from his subjects, upon every 
pretext he could find, whether just or otherwise. Then he 
went over to Normandy, and king Edward's kinsman Edgar 
ethehng left liim, because he received no great honour from 
him : may Almighty God give him glory hereafter. And 
the etheling's sister Christina went into the monastery of 
Komsey, and took the holy veil. And the same was a very 
heavy year, and very disastrous and sorrowful ; for there was 
a pestilence among the cattle, and the corn and fruits were 
checked; and the weather was worse than may easily be 
conceived: so violent was the thunder and lightning, that 
numy persons were killed : and things ever grew worse and 
worse with the people. May Almighty God mend them, 
when such is his will I 

^ A. 1087. The year 1087 after the birth of Christ our 
Saviour, and the one and twentieth of king William's reign, 
during wiiich he governed and disposed of the realm of Eng- 
land even as God permitted him, was a very grievous time 
of scarcity in this land. There was also so much illness, 

• This is the famous Doomsday Book, or Rotulus 'A^intonije, ctilled also 
Liber Wintonice. At the end of it is the date, Annx millesimo octoyesimo 
iSixio ab incarnulione Dei, vigesimo vero reyni Willelmi, ^c. 


that almost every other man was afflicted with the worst 
of erils, that is, a fever ; and this so severe, that many died 
of it. And afterwards, from the badness of the weathei 
which we have mentioned before, there was so great a famine 
throughout England, that many hundreds died of hunger. 
Oh, how disastrous, how rupful were those times ! when 
the wretched people were brouglit to the point of death by 
the fever, then the cruel famine came on and finished them. 
Who would not deplore such times, or who is so hard-hearted 
that he will not weep for so much misery ? But such things 
are, on account of the sins of the people, and because they 
will not love God and righteousness. Even so was it in 
those days ; there was little righteousness in this land 
amongst any, excepting the monks alone, who fsired well. 
The king and the chief men loved much, and over much, 
to amass gold and silver, and cared not how sinfully it was 
gotten, so that it came into their hands. The king sold out 
his lands as dear as dearest he might, and then some other 
man came and bid more than the first had given, and the 
king granted them to him who offered tlie larger sum ; then 
came a third and bid yet more, and the king made over the 
lands to him who offered most of all ; and he cared not how 
iniquitously his sheriffs extorted money from the miserable 
people, nor how many unlawful things they did. And the 
more men spake of rightful laws, the more lawlessly did 
they act. They raised oppressive taxes, and so many were 
their unjust deeds, it were hard to number them. And the 
same year, before harvest, St. Paul's holy minster, the resi- 
dence of the bishops of London, w as burnt, together with 
many otlier monasteries, and the greater and handsomer part 
of the whole city. At the same time likewise almost all the 
principal towns of England were burnt down. Oh, how sad 
and deplorable was this year, which brought forth so many 
calamities I 

The same year also, before the issumption of St. Mary, 
king William marched with an army out of Normandy into 
France, and made war upon his own lord king Philip, and 
slew a great number of his people, and burned the town of 
Mante, and all the holy monasteries in it, and two holy men 
who served God as anchorites were burned there. This 
done king William returned into Normandy. Rueful deeda 


he did, and ruefully he suffered. Wherefore ruefully ? Hij 
fell sick and became grievously ill. What can I say ? The 
sharpness of death, that spareth neither rich nor poor, seized 
upon him. He died in Normandy the day after the nativity 
of St. Mary, and he was buried in Caen, at St. Stephen's 
monastery, which he had built and had richly endowed. 
Oh, how false, how unstable, is the good of this world! 
He, who had been a powerful king and the lord of many 
territories, possessed not then, of all his lands, more than seven 
feet of ground ; and he, who was erewhile adorned with gold 
and with gems, lay then covered with mould. He left three 
sons : Eobert the eldest was earl of Normandy after him ; 
the second, named William, wore the crown of England after 
his father's death ; and his third son was Henry, to whom he 
bequeathed immense treasures. ,^ 

If any would know what manner of man king William 
was, the glory that he obtained, and of how many lands he 
was lord ; then Avill we describe him as we have known him, 
we, who have looked upon him, and who once lived in his 
court.* This king William, of whom we are speaking, was 
a very wise and a great man, and more honoured and more 
powerful than any of his predecessors. He was mild tQ 
those good men who loved God, but severe beyond mea- 
sure towards those who withstood his will. He founded a 
noble monastery on the spot where God permitted him to 
conquer England, and he established monks in it, and he 
made it very rich. In his days the great monastery at Can- 
terbury was built, and many others also throughout Eng- 
land; moreover this land was filled with monks who lived 
after the rule of St. Benedict; and such was the state of 
religion in his days that all that would, might observe that 
which was prescribed by their respective orders. King 
William was also held in much revei'ence : he wore his 
crown three times every year when he was in England : at 
Easter he wore it at Winchester, at Pentecost at "\Vestmin 
ster, and at Christmas at Gloucester. And at these times, 
all the men of England were with him, archbishops, bishops, 
abbats, and earls, thanes, and knights. So also, was he a very 
Btem and a wrathful man, so that none durst do anything 

♦ From this we learn that this part of the Chronicle was written by a 
oontemporary and eye-witness of the facts which he relates. 


against his will, and lie kept in prison those earls who acted 
against his pleasure. He removed bishops from their sees, 
and abbats from their offices, and he imprisoned thanes, and 
at length he spared not his own brother Odo. This Odo 
"vas a very powerful bishop in Normandy, his see was that 
of Bayeux, and he was foremost to serve the king. He 
had an earldom in England, and when William was in 
Noi'mandy he was the first man in this country, and him 
did he cast into prison. Amongst other things the good 
order that William established is not to be forgotten ; it 
was such that any man, who was himself aught, might tra- 
vel over the kingdom with a bosom-full of gold unmolested ; 
and no man durst kill another, however great the injury lie 
might have received from him. He reigned over England, 
and being sharp-sighted to his own interest, he surveyed the 
kingdom so thoroughly that there was not a single hide of 
land throughout the whole, of which he knew not the pos- 
sessor, and how much it was worth, and this he afterwards 
entered in his register.* The land of the Britons f was 
under his sway, and he built castles therein; moreover he 
had full dominion over the Isle of Man (Anglesey) : Scot- 
land also was subject to him from his great strength ; tlie 
land of Normandy was his by inheritance, and he possessed 
the earldom of Maine ; and had he lived two years longer 
he would hive subdued Ireland by his prowess, and that 
without a battle. Truly there was much trouble in these 
times, and very great distress ; he caused castles to be built, 
and oppressed the poor. The king was also of great stern- 
ness, and he took from his subjects many marks of gold, and 
many hundred pounds of silver, and this, either with or 
without right, and with little need. He was given to 
avarice, and greedily loved gain. He made large forests 
for the deer, and enacted laws therewith, so that whoever 
killed a hart or a hind should be blinded. As he forbade 
killing the deer, so also the boars; and he loved the tall 
stags as if he were their father. He also appointed con- 

* This is certainly an evident allusion to the compilation of Doomsday 
Book already described, a.d. 1085, as Gibson o'jserves; and it is equally 
cli-;ir to me, that the conposition of this jhrt of the Chronicle is by a 
lilToroiit hand. — iNoaAtf* 

T Waiea. 


cerniiig the hares, tliat they should go free. Tlie rich com- 
phiiiied and tke poor murmured, but he was so sturdy that 
he recked nought of them ; they must will all tliat the king 
willed, if they would live ; or would keep their lands ; or 
would hold their possessions ; or would be maintained in 
their rights. Alas ! that any man should so exalt himself, 
and carry himself in his pride over all ! May Almighty 
God show mercy to his soul, and grant him the forgive- 
ness of his sins ! We have written concerning him these 
things, both good and bad, that virtuous men might follow 
after the good, and wholly avoid the evil, and might go in 
the way that leadeth to the kingdom of heaven. 

We may write of many events which happened during this 
year. In Denmark, the Danes who were formerly accounted 
the most loyal of people, turned to the greatest possible per- 
fidy and treachery', for they chose king Canute, and submit- 
ted to him, and swore oaths of allegiance, and afterwards 
they shamefully murdered him in a church.* It also came 
to pass in Spain, that the heathen men went forth, and made 
war upon the Christians, and brought great part of the 
country into subjection to themselves. But the Christian 
king, w^hose name was Alphonso, sent to all countries and 
begged assistance. And allies flocked to him from every 
Christian land, and they went forth, and slew or drove away 
all the heathens, and they won their land again by the help 
of God. The same year also many great men died in this 
land : Stigand bishop of Chichester, and the abbat of St. 
Augustine's, and the abbats of Bath and of Pershore, and the 
lord of them all William king of England, concerning whom 
we have spoken above. 

After his death, his son William, of the same name with 
his father, took to himself the government, and was conse- 
crated king in Westminster by archbishop Lanfranc three 
days before Michaelmas : and all the men of England acknow- 
ledged him, and swore oaths of allegiance to him. This 
done, the king went to Winchester and examined the 
treasury, and the hoards which his father had amassed ; gold 
and silver, vessels of plate, palls, gems, and many other valu- 

• A church at Odensee, dedicated to St, Alban, whose relic« had been 
Drought from England by this Canute. 



ables that are hard to be numbered. The king diJ as his 
father before he died commanded hira ; he distributed trea- 
sures amongst all the monasteries of England, for the sake 
of his father's soul : to some he gave ten marks of gold, and 
to others six, and sixty pennies to every country church, and 
a hundred pounds of money was sent into every county to 
be divided among the poor for his soul's sake. And before 
he died he had also desired that all who had been imprisoned 
during his reign should be released. And the king was at 
London during midwinter. 

A. 1088. Tliis year the land was much disturbed, and 
filled with treason, so that the principal Frenchmen here 
would have betrayed their lord the king, and have had his 
brother Robert instead, who was earl of Normandy. Bishop 
Odo was the chief man in the conspiracy, together with 
bishop Gosfrith, and William bishop of Durham. The king 
esteemed the bishop so highly, that the affairs of all England 
were directed after his counsel, and according to his pleasure, 
but the bishop purposed to do by him as Judas Iscariot did 
by our Lord. And earl Roger was concerned in this con- 
spiracy, and many others with him> all Frenchmen. This 
plot was concerted during Lent ; and as soon as Easter came 
they marched forth, and plundered, and burned, and laid 
waste the lands of the crown ; and they ruined the estates of 
those who remained firm in their allegiance. And each of 
the head conspirators went to his own castle, and manned 
and victualled it, as best he might. Bishop Gosfrith and 
Robert the peace-breaker went to Bristol, and having plun- 
dered the town, they brought the spoils into the castie ; and 
afterwards they sallied forth and plundered Bath, and all the 
surrounding country, and they laid waste all the lordship 
of Berkeley. And the chief men of Hereford and all that 
county, and the men of Shropshire, with many from Wales, 
entered Worcestershire, and went on plundering and burning, 
till they approached the county town, and they were resolved 
to burn this also, and to plunder the cathedral, and to seize 
the king's castle for themselves. The worthy bishop Wul- 
stan seeing this, was much distressed in mind, because the 
castle was committed to his keeping. Nevertheless his re* 
tainers, few as they were, marched out, and through the 
mercy of God, and the good desert of the bishop, they slew 


or tcok captive tivo hundred men, and put all the rest \o 
flight. The bishop of Durham did as much harm as he 
could in all the northern parts : one of the conspirators 
named Roger, threw himself into Norwich castle, and spread 
devastation throughout that country : Hugo also was in no 
respect less formidable to Leicestershire and Northampton. 
Bishop Odo, with whom these commotions originated, de- 
parted to his earldom of Kent, which he ravaged, and he 
wholly laid waste the lands of the king and the archbishop, 
and brought all the plunder into his castle at Rochester. 
When the king had heard all this, and with what treason 
they were acting towards him, he was greatly disturbed in 
mind ; and he sent for the English, and laid his necessities 
before them, and entreated their assistance. He promised 
them better laws than had ever been in this land, and forbade 
all unjust taxes, and guaranteed to his subjects their woods 
and hunting. But these concessions were soon done away. 
Howbeit the English came to tlie aid of their lord the king, 
and they then marched towards Rochester, desiring to seise 
bishop Odo, for they thought that if they had him who was 
the head of the conspiracy in their power, they might with 
greater ease subdue the others. Then they came to Tun- 
bridge castle, in wliicli were the knights of bishop Odo and 
many others, who resolved to hold out against William. But 
the English came on, and stormed the castle, and the garrison 
capitulated. They then proceeded towards Rochester be- 
lieving that the bishop was there : but the king was told 
that he was departed to his castle at Pevensey, and the king 
and his troops went after him, and he besieged that castle 
full six weeks with a very large army. 

In the meantime Robert earl of Normandy, the king's 
brother, gathered together a great multitude, and thought 
that he should win England with the aid of the disaffected of 
this country. And he sent some of his troops to this land, 
intending to follow them himself. But the Enghsh who 
guarded the sea attacked these men, and slew and drowned 
more than any one can number. At length provisions be- 
came scarce in the castle, on which the insurgents prayed for 
a truce and surrendered the place to the king, and the bishop 
took an oath that he would depart from England, and never 
rfctum unless the king sent for him, and that he vrould ais» 

M 2 

164 THE ANGLO-SAXO^^ CHRONICLE, a.d. ios9. looo. 

g^ve up Rochester castle. After tliis the bishop proceeded 
thither that he might deliver up that fortress, aud the king 
sent his men with him. but then the soldiers who were in the 
castle arose, and seized the bishop, and the king's men, whom 
they put into confinement. There were very good knights 
in this castle : Eustace the younger, the three sons of earl 
Ivoger, and all the best born of this land, and of Normandy. 
When tlie king knew this, he set forth with all the troops 
theft with him, and he sent over all England and commanded 
tliat every man of mark, French or English, from town and 
from country, should come and join him. Many were those 
who flocked to him, and he marched to Rochester and be- 
sieged the castle till the garrison capitulated. Bishop Odo 
and those who were with him departed over sea, and thus the 
bishop lost the station he held in this land. The king after- 
wards sent an army to Durham, and besiwged the castle, and 
the bishop capitulated, and surrendered it, and he gave up 
his bishopric and went to Normandy. Many Frenchmen 
^Iso left their lands, and went over sea, and the king gave 
tlieir estates to those who had held fast to him. 

A. 1089. This year the venerable father and patron of 
monks, archbishop Lanfranc, departed tliis life, but we trust 
that he has entered into the kingdom of heaven. There 
was also a great earthquake throughout England on the 3rd 
day before the Ides of August.* And it was a very late 
year both as to the corn, and fruits of all kind, so that many 
pien reaped their corn about Martinmas, and even later. 

A. 1090. Things being in the state we have describcil, 
as regarding the king, liis brother, and his people, William 
considered how he might take the surest vengeance on his 
brother Robert, harass him most, and win Normandy from 
him. To this end, he gained the castle and port of St. Valeiy 
by stratagem or bribery, and also Albemarle castle, and he 
j^laced his knights in them, and they did much harm, ravag- 
ing and burning the country. After this he got possession 
of more castles in that land, and in these also he stationed his 
ki lights. When Robert earl of Normandy found that his 
sworn liege-men revolted and gave up their castles to his 
frrcat injury, he sent to his lord Philip king of France, v/'Ijo 

♦ The 11th of August. 


came into Norniindy with a large army; and tlie king and 
the earl with an innumerable force besieged a castle defended 
by the king of England's soldiers : but king William of Eng- 
land sent to Philip king of France, and he, for love of Wil- 
liam or for his great bribes, deserted his vassal earl Robert 
and his land, and returned to France, leaving things as they 
were. During all these transactions, England was greatly 
oppressed by unlawful taxes, and many other grievances. 

A. 1091. This year king William held his court at Westmin- 
ster at Christmas, and the following Candlemas he departed 
from England to Normandy, bent on his brother's ruin : but 
whilst he was in that country, peace was made between them, 
on condition that the earl should give up Feschamp, the earldom 
of Eu, and Cherbourg, to William, and withal that the king's 
men should be unmolested in those castles of which they had 
possessed themselves in the earl's despite. And the king, on 
his side, promised to reduce to their obedience the many 
castles conquered by their father, which had since revolted 
from the earl, and also to establish him in the possession of 
all their father's territories abroad, excepting those places 
which the earl had then given up to the king. Moreover all 
who had lost their lands in England on account of the earl 
were to regain them by this treaty, and the earl also was to 
receive certain estates in England then specified. It was 
also agreed that if the earl died leaving no legitimate son the 
king should be heir of all Normandy, and in like manner if 
the king died, that the earl should be heir of all England. 
Twelve of the chief men on the part of the king, and twelve 
on that of the earl, guaranteed this treaty by oath ; yet it was 
observed but a short time. During this peace Edgar etheling 
v/as dispossessed of those lands which the earl had granted him, 
and he departed and went from Normandy into Scotland, to 
the king his brother-in-law, and his sister. Whilst king Wil- 
liam was out of England, Malcolm king of Scotland invaded 
this country, and ravaged great part of it, till the good men to 
whom the keeping of the land was entrusted, sent their troops 
against liim and drove him back. When king William heard 
this in Normandy, he hastened to return, and he came to Eng- 
land and his brother earl Robert with him. And they called 
out a fleet and army, but almost all the ships were lost, a few 
days before jMichaelmas. ere they reached Sccuand. And 


1092, 1003 

.he king and his brother proceeded with the army : and 

■when king Malcolm heard that thej sought to attack him, he 
marched with his array out of Scotland into Lothian in 
England, and remained there. And when king William 
approached, earl Robert and Edgar etheling mediated a 
peace between the kings, on condition that king Malcolm 
should repair to our king, and become his vassal, and in all 
tlie like subjection as to his father before him ; and this he 
confirmed by oath. And king William promised him all the 
lands and possessions that he held under his father. By this 
peace Edgar etheling was reconciled to the king. And the 
kings separated in great friendship, but this lasted during a 
short time only. Earl Robert abode here with the king till 
Christmas drew near, and in this time he found little good 
fuith as to the fullilment of the treaty, and two days before 
the feast he took ship from the Isle of Wight and sailed to 
Normandy, and Edgar etheling with liim. 

A. 1092. This year king William went northward to 
Carlisle with a large army, and he repaired the city, and 
built the castle. And he drove out Doltin, who had before 
governed that country ; and having placed a garrison in the 
castle, he returned into the south, and sent a great number 
of rustic Englishmen thither, with their wives and cattle, 
that they might settle there and cultivate the land. 

A. 1093. This year, in Lent, king William was very sick 
at Gloucester, insomuch that he was universally reported to 
be dead : and he made many good promises in his illness ; 
that he would lead his future life in righteousness — that the 
churches of God he would guard and free — and never mort 
sell them for money — and that he would have all just laws 
in his kingdom. And he gave the archbishopric of Canter- 
bury, which he had hitherto kept in his own hands, to 
Anselm, who was before this abbat of Bee, and the bishopric 
of Lincoln to his chancellor Robt vt ; and he granted lands to 
many monasteries, but afterwards, when recovered, he took 
tliem back, and he neglected all the good laws that he had 
promised us. After this the king of Scotland sent desirinj 
that the stipulated conditions might be performed ; and kinj 
William summoned him to Gloucester, and sent hostages to 
liim in Scotland, and afterwards Edgar etheling and other.? 
r^ict him, and brou;;ht him with much lionoiir to the court* 

A.D. 1095, 1094. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 167 

But when he came there, he could neither obtain a confer 
ence with our king nor tlie performance of tlie condition? 
formerly promised him, and therefore they departed in great 
Cimiity: and king Malcolm returned home to Scotland, and 
as soon as he came thither, he assembled his troops and 
invaded England, ravaging the country with more fury than 
behoved him : and Robert, earl of Northumberland, with his 
men, lay in wait for him, and slew him unawares. He was 
killed by Morasl of Bambrough, the earl's steward, and king 
Malcolm's own godfather:* his son Edward, who, had he 
lived, would have been king after his father, was killed with 
him. When the good queen Margaret heard that her most 
beloved lord, and her son, were thus cut off, she was grieved 
in spirit unto death, and she went with her priest into the 
church, and having gone through all befitting rites, she 
prayed of God that she might give up the ghost. And then 
the Scots chose f Dufenal, the brother of Malcolm, for their 
king, and drove out all the English who had been with king 
Malcolm. When Duncan, the son of king Malcolm, heard 
all this, for he was in king William's court, and had re- 
mained here from the time that his father gave him as an 
hostage to our king's father, he came to the king, and did 
such homage as the king required ; and thus, with his con- 
sent, he departed for Scotland, with the aid that he could 
muster, both English and French, and he deprived his kins- 
man Dufenal of the throne, and was received as king. But 
then some of the Scotch again gathered themselves together, 
and slew nearly all his men, and he himself escaped with 
few others. They were afterwards reconciled on this con- 
dition, that Duncan should never more bring English or 
Frenchmen into that country. 

A. 1094. This year, at Christmas, king William held hia 

* Ingram translates the original " godsib" baptismal friend, and adds 
the following note, " literally a gossip ; but such are the 'changes which 
words undergo in their meaning as well as in their form, that a title of 
lionour, formerly implying a spiritual relationship in God, is now applied 
only to those whose conversation resembles the contemptible tittle-tattle of 
a christening: — Gibson translates it a ' susceptor,' i. e. an undertaker." 

+ " From this expression it is evident, that though preference wa« 
naturally and properly given to hereditary claims, the monarchy of S.'x>t- 
land, as well as oi Kugland, was in principle elective. The doctriiie of 
hereditaryj of diviu**- ai indefeaaiblw ru^t. jg Qf modem grovth.** — Imujumu 


court at Gloucester ; and there came messengers to him out 
of Normandy, from his brother Robert, and they said that 
his brother renounced all peace and compact if the king 
would not perform all that they had stipulated in the treaty ; 
moreover they called him perjured and faithless unless he 
would perform the conditions, or would go to the place 
where the treaty had been concluded and sworn to, and 
there clear himself Then at Candlemas the king went to 
Hastings, and whilst he waited there for a fair wind, he 
caused the monastery on the field of battle* to be conse- 
crated ; and he took the staff from Herbert Losange, "j" bishop 
of Thetford. — After this, in the middle of Lent, he went 
over sea to Normandy. When he came thither he and liis 
brother, earl Robert, agreed that they would meet in peace, 
and they did so, to the end that they might be reconciled, 
liut afterwards, when they met, attended by the same men 
who had brought about the treaty, and had sworn to see it 
executed, these charged all the breach of faith upon the 
king ; he would not allow this, neither would he observe the 
treaty, on which they separated in great enmity. And the 
king then seized the castle of Bures, and took the earl's men 
who were in it, and he sent some of them over to this coun- 
try. And on the other hand the earl, with the assistance of 
the king of France, took the castle of Ai'gences, in wliich he 
seized Roger the Poitou and seven hundred of the king's 
soldiers ; and he afterwards took the castle of Hulme ; and 
frequently did each burn the towns and take captive the 
i)eople of his rival. Then the king sent hither and ordered 
out 20,000 Englishmen to aid him in Normandy, but when 
they reached the sea they were desired to return, and to give 
to the king's treasury the money that they had received; 
this was half a pound for each man, and they did so. And 
in Normandy, after this, the earl, with the king of France, 
and all the troops that they could collect, marched towards 
Eu, where king William then was, purposing to besiege him 
therein, and thus they proceeded until they came to Lune- 

• Battle Abbey. 

f Commonly culled Herbert de Losinga. His letters are of much his- 
torical interest : they were supposed to be lost, »«ntil they were recenily 
ci-i-'-rovered by Robert Anstruther in tlie Brussels lihraiy, aiid putUalied 
8yo, iJruxellLj, apud Vandale, et Londini apud D. NutU 


Tille, and thei-e the king of France furned off through 
treachery, and on this the whole army dispersed. Li the 
meantime king William sent for his brother Henry, who 
was in the castle of Damfront, and because he could not pass 
through Normandy in security, he sent ships for him, with 
Hugo, earl of Chester. And when they should have made 
I'or Eu, where the king was, they directed their course in- 
stead to England, and landed at Hampton* on the eve of 
All Saints' day; and they then remained ija this country, 
and were in London at Christmas. 

The same year also the Welsh gathered themselves to- 
gether, and made war upon the French in Wales, or in the 
neighbouring parts, where they had been before deprived of 
their lands, and they stormed many fortresses and castles, 
and slew tlie men, and afterwards their numbers increased 
so much, that they divided themselves into many bodies; 
Hugo, earl of Shropshire, fought with one division and put 
it to flight, but nevertheless the others abstained not, during 
the whole year, from committing every outrage in their 
l)ower. This year also the Scots conspired against their 
king Duncan, and slew him, and they afterwards took his 
uncle Dufenal a second time for their king ; through whose 
instructions and instigation Duncan had been betrayed to 
his death. 

A. 1095. This year king William was at Whitsand during 
the first four days of Christmas, and after the fourth day he 
set sail and landed at Dover. And the king's brother Henry 
remained in this country till Lent, and then he went over 
sea to Normandy, with much treasure to be employed in the 
king's service against their brother, earl Robert : and he 
gained ground upon the earl continually, and did much damage 
to his lands and subjects. Then at Easter tlie king held his 
court at Winchester, and Robert earl of Northumberland 
would not repair thither ; therefore the king's anger was 
greatly stirred up against him, and he sent to him, and 
sternly commanded that if he would remain in peace he 
should come to his court at Pentecost. This year Eastei 
fell on the 8th before the Kalends of April, and after EAster^ 

♦ Now called Southampton, to distinguish it from Northampton; bul 
the common people, in both neighbourhoods, geneniUy sav " H&aapton'* U 
thiaday. — Ingram. 


on ttie night of the feast of St. Ambrose, the 2nd before the 
Nones of April, there was seen all over the country a great 
multitude of stars falling from heaven during nearly the whole 
of the night, not one or two at a time, but so thickly that no 
man might number them. After this, at Pentecost, the king 
was at Windsor, and all his witan with him, excepting the 
earl of Northumberland, for the king would neither give 
hostages nor pledge liis troth that he should come and go in 
security. On this the king called out an army, and marched 
against the earl into Northumberland, and as soon as he 
came thither he seized almost all the chief men of the earl's 
court in a certain fortress, and he put them in confinement. 
And he besieged Tinmouth castle until he took it, and there 
he seized the earl's brother, and all who were with him ; 
thence he proceeded to Bambrough, and there he besieged 
tlie earl ; and when the king found that he could not reduce 
him, he caused a castle to be built over against Bambrough, 
and called it in his speech, Malveisin, which is in English, 
"the evil neighbour," and he garrisoned it strongly, and 
afterwards he departed southward. Then one night, soon 
after the king's return into the south, the earl went out o£' 
Bambrough towards Tinmouth : but those in the new castle, 
being aware of his design, pursued and attacked him, and 
they wounded him, and afterwards took him prisoner, and some 
of his followers were slain, and some taken alive. Li the 
meantime the king was told that the Welsh had stormed a 
certain castle in Wales, called Montgomery, and had slain 
earl Hugo's men who defended it ; on this he commanded 
another army to be called out in haste, and after Michaelmas 
he proceeded into Wales. He divided his forces, and his 
troops made their way through all parts of the country, and 
met at Snow don, on All Saints' day. But the Welsh ever 
fled before him to the mountains and moors, so that no man 
could get near them, and the king at length returned home- 
wards, because he could do no more there that winter. \MieD 
the king came back, he commanded his people to take Robert 
earl of Northumberland, and lead him to Bambrough, and to 
put out both his eyes, unless the besieged would surrende 
the castle, which was defended by his wife, and his steward 
Morel, who was also his kinsman. On this, the castle wa.-. 
given up, and Morel was received at William's court ; and 


through hira many were discovered, both cleri^y jDd laity, 
who had aided this rebellion with their counsel. Then the 
king ordered some of them to be imprisoned before Clirist' 
mas, and he straightly commanded throughout the kingdom, 
that all wlio held lands of him should be at his court, on 
that festival, as they would retain his protection. And the 
king had earl Robert brought to Windsor, and confined there 
in the castle. This year also, a little before Easter, the 
pope's legate came to England ; this was Walter, bishop of 
Albano, a man of a very virtuous life, and at Pentecost he 
presented archbishop Anselm with his pall from pope Urban, 
and he received it at his metropolitan city of Canterbury. 
And bishop Walter remained h^re great part of this year 
and on his return the Romescot,* which had not been paid for 
many years before, was sent with him. This year also the 
weather was very unseasonable, so that the fruits of the 
earth were much injured over all the country. 

A. 1096. This year king William held his Christmas 
court at Windsor; and William bishop of Durham died 
there on New Year's day. And the king and all his witan 
were at Salisbury on the octaves of the Epiphany. There 
Geoifry Bainard accused William of Eu, the king's relation, 
saj-ing that he had been concerned in the conspiracy against 
the king, and for this cause he fought with him and over- 
came him in single combat, and after he was vanquished the 
king commanded that his eyes should be put out ; and the 
king also caused his steward named William, who was his 
aunt's son, to be hanged on the gallows. Then also Eoda 
earl of Champagne, the king's uncle, and many others, were 
deprived of their lands, and some were brought to London, 
and there executed. At Easter, this year, there was a very 
great stir in this country and in many others also, through 
Urban, who was called pope, though he was not in posses- 
sion of the see of Rome ; and an innumerable multitude of 
men, with their wives and children, departed to go and con- 
quer the heathen nations. The king and his brother, earl 
Robert, were reconciled in consequence of this expedition, so 
that the king went over sea, and received from the earl all 
Normandy for a sum of money, according tc contract. Aiid 
thereupon the earl departed, and with him went the earls of 
* Commonly called Peter's pence. 


Flanders and of Boulogne, and many other headmen.* And 
earl Robert and those who accompanied him abode in Apulia 
that winter. But of those who went by Hungary, many thou- 
sands perished miserably there, or on the road, and many, rueful 
and hunger-bitten, toiled homewards against winter. These 
were very hard times to all the English, as well because of 
tlie manifold taxes, as of the very grievous famine which sorely 
afflicted the land. This year also the nobles who had charge 
of this country frequently sent forth armies into Wales, and 
thus they greatly oppressed many, and for no purpose, but 
with much loss of men and of money. 

A. 1097. This year king William was in Normandy at 
Christmas, and beft^re Easter he sailed for this land, intend- 
ing to hold liis court at Winchester, but he was kept at sea 
by bad weather till Easter eve ; and Arundel was the first 
place to which he came, therefore he held his court at Wind- 
sor. After this, he marched into Wales with a large army, 
and his troops penetrated far into the country by means of 
some Welshmen who had come over to him, and were his guides. 
And William remained there from Midsummer till near Au- 
gust, to his great loss of men and horses and many other things. 

When the Welsh had revolted from the king, they chose 
several leaders from among themselves, one of these was 
named Cadwgan, he was the most powerful of them all, and 
w}is the son of king Griffin's brother. The king, seeing 
that he could not effect his purpose, returned into England, 
and he forthwith caused castles to be built on the marches. 
Then at ^Michaelmas, on the 4th before the Nones of Octo- 
ber, an uncommon star appeared shining in the evening, and 
soon going down : it was seen in tlie south-west, and the 
light which streamed from it seemed very long, shining to- 
wards the south-east ; and it appeared after this manner 
nearly all the week. Many allowed that it was a comet. 
Soon after this, Anselm archbishop of Canterbury obtained 
permission from the king, though against his inclination, to 
leave this country and go over sea, because it seemed to hiiu 
that in this nation little was done according to right, or after 
his desires. And at Martinmas the king went over sea to 

* " Headmen or chiefs." The term is still retained with a slight varia- 
tion in the north of Europe, as the Uelman I'latotf, of celcLiated momury.' 

A.©. 1007 1099. THE ANGLO-SxiXON CHRONICLE. 173 

Normandy ; but whilst he waited for a fnir mnd, his train 
did ius much injury in the county in which they were de- 
tiiined, as any prince's retinue, or even an army could have 
committed in a peaceable land. 

This year was in all respects a very heavy time, and the 
weather was singularly bad at the seasons wlien men should 
till their lands and gather in the harvest ; and the people 
had nevertheless no respite from unjust taxes. Many shires, 
moreover, which are bound to duty in works at London, 
were greatly oppressed in making the wall around the tower, 
in repairing the bridge which had been almost washed away, 
and in building the king's hall at Westminster. These 
hardships fell upon many. This year also, at Michaelmas, 
Edgar etheling, with the king's aid, led an army into Scot- 
land, and won that country by hard fighting, and drove out 
the king Dufnal, and established his kinsman Edgar the 
son of king Malcolm and queen Margaret, as king in fealty 
to William, and then he returned into England. 

A. 1098. This year king AYilliam was in Normandy at 
Christmas ; and Walkelin bishop €f Winchester, and Bald- 
win abbat of St. Edmund's, both died during this festival. 
Tliis year also died Turold abbat of Peterborough. More- 
over in the summer of tliis year a spring of blood burst out 
at Finchamstead, in Berksliire, according to the declaration 
of many men of credit, who said that tliey had seen it. And 
earl Hugo was slain in Anglesey by foreign pirates ; his 
brother Kobert succeeded him, having obtained this of the 
king. Before Michaelmas-day the heaven appeared as it 
were on fire, almost all the night. Tliis was a year of much 
distress, caused by the manifold oppressive taxes ; nearly all 
the crops in the marsh lands failed also from the great rains, 
which ceased not the whole year. 

A. 1099. This year king WiUiam was in Normandy at 
"Ihristmas ; and at Easter he came hither ; and at Penteco^st 
^ held his court for the first time in the new building at 
^"estminster, and there he gave the bishopric of Durham to 
ms chaplain Panulf, who had long been the chief manager 
jjid director of all the king's councils held in England. And 
i^on afterwards William went over sea, and drove earl Elias 
ir(>m Maine, and brought thai;- province into subjection ; and 
at jVIichaelmas he returned U this land. This year also, on 


St. Martin's day, there was 'so very high a tide, and the 
damage was so great in consequence, that men remembered 
not the like to have ever happened before, and th*^ same day 
was the first of the neAV moon. And Osmond bisho^j of S'^silis- 
bury died during Advent. 

A. 1100. This year, at Christmas, king William held his 
court in Gloucester ; and at Easter in Winchester ; and at 
l^entecost in Westminster. And at Pentecost blood was 
observed gushing from the earth, at a certain town of 
Berkshire, even as many asserted who declared that they 
luid seen it. And after this, on the morning after Lammas-day, 
king William was shot with an arrow by his own men, as he 
was hunting, and he was carried to Winchester and buried 
there.* Tliis was in the thirteenth year from his accession. 
lie was very powerful, and stern over his lands and subjects, 
and towards all his neighbours, and much to be dreaded, and 
through the counsels of evil men wliich were always pleasing 
to him, and through his own avarice, he was ever vexing the 
people with armies and with cruel taxes ; for in his days all 
justice sank, and all unrighteousness arose, in the sight of 
God and the world. He trampled on the church of God, 
and as to the bishoprics and abbacies, the incumbents of 
which died in his reign, he either sold them outright, or 
kept them in his own hands, and set them out to renters ; for 
he desired to be the heir of every one, churchman or layman, 
so that the day on which he was killed he had in his own 
hands the archbishopric of Canterbury, the bishoprics of 
V/inchester and Salisbury, and eleven abbacies, all let out to 
farm, and in fine, however long I may delay mention of it,| 
all that was abominable to God and oppressive to men was 
common in this island in William's time : and therefore he 
was hated by almost all his people, and abhorred by God as 
his end showeth, in that he died in the midst of his 
unrighteousness, without repentance or any reparation made 
for lus evil deeds. He was slain on a Thursday, and buried 
the next morning : and after he was buried, the witan wlio 
were then near at hand, chose his brother Henry as king, 

• His monument is still to be seen there, a plain gravestone of black 
marble, of the common shape c«lled " dos d'ane," sach as are now 
frequently seen, though of inferior materials, in the church-yards of vili ige% 
»md are only one remove from the grassy sod. — Ingram. 

t liigram renders this, " though 1 may l>e tedious." 

A.D. 1100, 1101. THE ANQLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 175 

ai (1 he forthwitli gave the bishopric of Winchester to William 
Gilfard, and then went to London ; and on tjie Sunday 
following he made a promise to God and all the people, 
before the altar at Westminster, that he would abolish the 
injustice which prevailed in his brother's time, and that he 
would observe the most equitable of the laws established in 
the days of any of the kings before him : and after this 
Maurice bishop of London consecrated him as king, and all 
the m.en of this land submitted to him, and swore oaths and 
became his liege-men. And soon afterwards, the king, by 
the advice of those about him, caused Ranulf bishop of 
Durham to be taken and brought into the Tower of London, 
and confined there. Then before IVIichaelmas Anselm 
archbishop of Canterbury came to this land ; king Henry 
having sent for him by the advice of his witan, because he had 
left the country on account of the injustice done him by king 
^Villiam. And soon afterwards the king took for his wife 
Maud the daughter of Malcolm king of Scotland and of the 
flood queen Margaret king Edward's kinswoman, of the true 
royal line of England ; and on Martinmas day she was given 
to him with great pomp at W^estminster, and archbishop 
Anselm wedded her to Henry, and afterwards consecrated 
her as queen. And soon after this Thomas archbishop of 
York died. This year also, in the autumn, earl Robert came 
home into Normandy, and Robert earl of Flanders and 
Eustace earl of Boulogne also returned from Jerusalem, and 
on earl Robert's arrival in Normandy he was joyfully 
received by all the people, excepting those in the castles 
which were garrisoned with king Henry's men, and against 
these he had many contests and struggles. 

A. 1101. This year, at Christmas, king Henry held his 
court at Westminster, and at Easter at Winchester. And 
!?(>on afterwards the chief men of this land entered into a 
league against the king, both from their own great treachery, 
and through Robert earl of Normandy who had hostile 
designs upon this land. And then the king sent out ships to 
annoy and liinder his brother ; but some of them failed at 
time of need, and deserted from the king, and submitted to 
earl Robert. At Midsummer the king posted himself with 
all his troops at Pevensey to oppose his brother, and he 
waited for him there. And in the meantime earl Robert 

176 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. iioi, 1102. 

landed ::t Portsmouth twelve nights before Lammas, and the 
king marched against him with all his forces ; but the chief 
men interfered and made peace between them, on conditio*^ 
that the king should give up all those places in Normandy 
which he then detained from his brother by force of arms ; 
and that all who had lost their lands in England on the earl's 
account should have them again, and that earl Eustace 
should also have his father's estates in this country, and that 
earl Robert should receive yearly 3000 marks of silver from 
England ; and it was stipulated by tliis treaty that wliichever 
of the brothers outlived the other, he should inherit all 
England together with Normandy, unless the deceased left 
legitimate issue. And twelve men of the highest rank on 
either side confirmed this treaty by oath : and the earl 
afterwards remained here till after Michaelmas ; and his men 
did much harm wherever they went, whilst the earl stayed in 
this land. This year also, at Candlemas, bishop Kanulf 
escaped by night from the Tower of London, in which he 
was confined, and went to Normandy. It was at his sugges- 
tion chielly, that earl Robert was incited to invade this 

A. 1102. This year king Henry was at Westminster 
during tlie feast of the Nativity, and at Easter he was at 
Winchester. And soon afterwards a difference arose between 
the king and Robert of Belesme, who held the earldom of 
Shrewsbury in this country, which his father earl Roger had 
enjoyed before him, and who had other great possessions 
both here and abroad ; and the king went and besieged 
Arundel Castle, and when he found that he should not be 
able to take it speedily, he caused castles to be built before 
it, and garrisoned with his men ; and then he led all 
his troops to Bridgenorth, and remained there till he had 
reduced the castle, and deprived earl Robert of his lands, 
and he took from him all that he possessed in England ; so 
the earl departed over sea, and the king's soldiers were 
disbanded and returned home. On the Michaelmas following 
the king was at Westminster, with all the head men of tliis 
land, both clergy and laity ; and archbishop Anselm held a 
synod, at which many decrees were made touching the 
Christian religion ; and many abbats, both French and 
English, lost their staffs and their abbacies, because they 


tad obtained them unlawfully, or had lived unnghteously 
therein. And the same year, in Pentecost week, there came 
robbers, some from Auvergne, some from France, and some 
from Flanders, and they brake into the monastery of Peter- 
borough, and carried otf much treasure of gold and silver : 
crosses, chalices, and candlesticks. 

A. 1103. This year king Henry was at Westminster at 
Christmas. And soon afterwards the bishop William G iifard 
departed from this land, because he would not against riglit 
receive consecration from Gerard arclibishop of York. And 
at Easter the king held his court at Winchester ; and after- 
wards, Anselm archbishop of Canterbury journeyed to Rome, 
as he and the king had agreed. This year also earl Robert 
of Normandy came to tliis land, to speak w4th the king, and 
before he departed hence he gave up the 3000 marks which 
king Henry should have paid him yearly according to the 
treaty. This year blood was seen gushing out of the earth 
at Hampstead,* in Berksliire. This w^as a year of much 
distress from the manifold taxes, and also from a mortality 
among the cattle, and from the failure of the crops, both of 
the corn and all fruits of trees. In the morning also of St. 
Lawrence's day, the wind did so much damage to all the 
fruit of this land, that no man remembered the like to have 
ever happened before. The same year died Matthias abbat 
of Peterborough, w^ho had not lived more than one year after 
he was made abbat. After Michaelmas, on the 12th before the 
Kalends of November, he was received in procession as abbat, 
and the same day the year following he died at Gloucester, 
and there he was buried. 

A. 1104. This year, at Christmas, king Henry held his 
court at Westminster, at Easter at Winchester, at Pentecost 
again at Westminster. This year the first day of Pentecost 
was on the Nones of June, and on the Tuesday after, at mid- 
day, there appeared four circles of a white colour round the 
sun, one under the other as if they had been painted. All 
who saw it wondered, because they never remembered such 
before. An alliance was afterwards formed between Robert 
earl of Normandy and Robert of Belesme,t whom king 
Henry had deprived of his estates, and di'iven out of Eng- 

• Fiiichaixistea>d. f Hence the English tame BeVsuayH 


178 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d. 1104.1106. 

land, and from this, the king of England and the earl o\ 
Kormandy became at variance. And the king sent his 
people over sea into Normandy, and the head men of that 
country received them, and admitted them into their castles 
in treachery to their lord the earl, and they greatly annoyed 
the earl by plundering and burning his territories. This 
year also, William earl of Moreton (Mortaigne) departed to 
Normandy, and being there, he took arms against the king, 
on which the king confiscated all his possessions and estates 
in this country. It is not easy to describe the misery of this 
land, which it suffered at this time through the various and 
manifold oppressions and taxes that never ceased or slack- 
ened : moreover wherever the king went his train fell to 
j)lundering his wretched people, and withal there was much 
burning and manslaughter. By all this was the anger of 
God provoked, and this unhappy nation harassed. 

A. 1105. This year, at Christmas, king Henry held his 
court at Windsor, and the following Lent he went over sea 
to Normandy against his brother earl Robert. And whilst 
he remained there he won Caen and Bayeux from his brother, 
and almost all the castles and chief men of that land became 
gui>ject to him ; and in the autumn he came again to this 
country. And all that he had conquered in Normandy re- 
mained to him afterwards in peace and subjection, excepting 
those places which lay in the neighbourhood of William earl 
of Moreton,* and which he harassed continually as much as 
harass he might, in revenge for the loss of his estates in 
England. Then before Christmas Robert de Belesme came 
hither to the king. This was a year of great distress from 
< lie failure of the fruits, and from the manifold taxes wliich 
never ceased, either before the king went abroad, while he 
was there, or again after his return. 

A. 1106. This year at Christmas, king Henry was at 
Westminster, and there he held his court, and during this 
festival Robert de Belesme departed from the king in enmity, 
and left this country tor Normandy. After this, and before 
Lent, the king was at Northampton, and his brother earl 
Robert of Normandy came to him there ; and because the 

• " De Moritonio" is the Latin title ; the town of Mortaigne ia Nor- 
n&nd) is tlie plai-e trom which it is tak«;n. 


king would not give uy chat which he had won from the earl 
in Normandy, they separated in enmity, and tlie earl soon 
went again over sea. In the first week of Lent, on tlie 
evening of Friday, tho 14th before tlie Kalends of March, a 
strange star appeared, and it was seen a while every evening 
for a longtime afterwards. This star appeared in the south- 
west, it seemed small and dim, but the light that stood f]*om 
it was very bright, and like an exceedingly long beam shining 
to the north-east ; und one evening it seemed as if a beam 
from over against the star darted directly into it. Some 
persons said that th.;y observed more unknown stars at this 
time, but we do not A^rite this as a certainty because we saw 
tliem not ourselves. One night, the morrow being the day 
of our Lord's supper, that is, the Thursday before Easter, 
two moons appeared before day in the heavens, the one in 
the east and the other in the west, both full ; and the same 
day was the 14th of the moon. At Easter the king was at 
Bath, and at Pentecost at Salisbury, because he would not 
hold his court over sea during his absence from this country. 
After this before August, the king went into Normandy, and 
almost all the inhabitants bowed to his will, excepting Robert 
de Belesme, and the earl of Mortaigne, and a few other 
chiefs who yet held with the earl of Normandy : the king 
tlierefore came v/ith an army, and besieged a castle of the 
earl of Mortaigne called Tinchebrai. Whilst the king wag 
besieging this castle, Robert earl of Normandy and his army 
came upon him on Michaelmas eve, and with him were 
Robert de Belesme and William earl of Mortaigne, and all 
who wished well to their cause, but strength and victory 
were with the king. The earl of Normandy was taken, 
together with the earl of Mortaigne and Robert de Stutte- 
ville ; and they were afterwards sent to England, and kept 
in confinement ; Robert de Belesme was put to flight, and 
William Crispin was taken, with many others ; Edgar ethel- 
ing who had gone over from the king to the earl a short 
time before, was also taken ; but the king afterwards let him 
depart unhurt. After this, the king subdued the whole of 
Normandy, and brought it under his own will and power. 
This year also there was a very terrible and sinful war 
between the emperor of Saxony and his son, during which 
the father died, and the son succeeded to the empire. 

N 2 

180 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. 1107-1109. 

A. 1107. This year king Henry was in Normandy at 
Christmas and reduced that land, and having settled the 
government, he came to England the following Lent ; and he 
held his court at Windsor at Easter, and at Pentecost he held 
.t at Westminster. And in the beginning of August he was 
again at Westminster, and there he gave away bishoprics 
and abbacies, disposing of such as were without elders and 
pifstors, both in England and Normandy ; the number of 
these was so great that no man remembered that so many 
were ever before given away at one time. And amongst 
others who then received abbacies, Ernulf prior of Canter- 
bury obtained that of Peterborough. This was about the 
seventh year of king Henry's reign, and the one and fortieth 
year that the French ruled in this land. Many said that 
they saw various tokens in the moon this year, and his* light 
waxing and waning contrary to nature. This year died 
Maurice bishop of London, and Robert abbat of St. Ed- 
mund's Bury, and Richard abbat of Ely. This year also 
Edgar king of Scotland died on the Ides of January, and his 
brother Alexander succeeded to the kingdom with king 
Henry's consent. 

A. 1108. This year, at Christmas, king Henry was at 
Westminster ; and at Easter at Winchester ; and at Pente- 
cost again at Westminster. After this, before August, he 
went into Normandy. And Philip king of France dying on 
the Nones of August, his son Louis succeeded him, and there 
were afterwards many battles between the kings of France 
and of England, whilst Henry remained in Normandy. This 
year also Gerard archbishop of York di'=*d before Pentecost, 
and Thomas was afterwards appointed as his successor. 

A. 1109. This year king Henry was in Normandy both at 
Christmas and at Easter ; and before Pentecost he came 
hither and held his court at Westminster, at which place the 
stipulations were ratified, and the oaths sworn, relative t<; 
the marriage of his daughter with the emperor. There wjipr 
much thunder this year, and that very terrible. And An- 
Belm archbishop of Canterbury died on the 11th before the 
Kalends of April, and the first day of Easter was on the 
greater Litany. 

• The moon is of the masculine gender, and the sun fe:niuine, ir 
Anglo-Saxon, as in German, See a.d. 1110 

A.T). 1110, nil. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 181 

A. 1110. This year, at CLristmas, king Henry lield his 
court at Westminster ; and at Easter he was at Marlbo- 
rough ; and at Pentecost lie held liis court for the first time 
in the New Windsor. This year, before Lent, the king sent 
his daughter with manifold treasures over sea, and gave her 
to the emperor. On the fifth night of the month of May the 
moon appeared shining brightly in the evening, and after- 
wards his light waned by little and little, and early in tlie 
night he was so wholly gone that neither light, nor circle, 
nor anything at all of him was to be seen, and thus it con- 
tinued till near day, and then he appeared shining full and 
bright ; he was a fortnight old the same day : the sky was 
very clear all the night, and the stars shone very brightly all 
over the heavens, and the fruit trees were greatly injured by 
that night's frost. After this, in the month of June, there 
appeared a star in the north-east, and its light stood before it 
to the south-west, and it was seen tlius for many nights, and 
ever as the night advanced it mounted upwards and was 
seen going off to the north-west. This year Pliilip de Brause,* 
and William Mallet, and William Baynard, were deprived of 
their lands. This year also died earl Elias, who held Maine 
in fee-tail f of king Henry ; but on his death the earl of An- 
jou took possession of that province, and kept it against the 
king's will. This was a year of much distress from the 
taxes which the king raised for his daughter's dowry, and 
from the bad weather by which the crops were greatly in- 
jured, and nearly all the fruit on the trees destroyed through- 
out the country. — This year men first began to work at the 
new monastery of Chertsey. 

A. 1111. This year king Henry wore not his crown at 
Christmas, nor at Easter, nor at Pentecost. And in August 
he was called over sea to Normandy, by the hostility of cer- 
tain of his enemies on the marches of France, and principally 
by that of the earl of Anjou, who held Maine against him : 
and after his arrival many were the intrigues and great the 

• This is the term used by Miss Gumey. Dr. Ingram renders it 
Braiose ; the Anglo-Saxon is Brause ; the Latin, Braiosa. Is not the 
modem name Bracy derived from this root ? 

+ That is, the territory was not a fee-simple, but sulject to taillnge, or 
taxation ; and that particular species is probably here mtended, which ia 
called in old French *' en queuage," an expression not very dittere3>{ Aom 
that in the text above. — Inguah. 

182 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a.d 1112-1114 

burning and plundering carried on hj either party against 
the other. — This year Robert earl of Flanders died and his 
son Baldwin succeeded him. The winter was very long tliis 
year, a heavy and a severe time, by which the fruits of tlie 
earth were much injured ; and there was the greatest pesti- 
lence among the cattle ever remembered. 

A. 1112. All this year king Henry remained in Nor- 
mandy, on account of tlie war in which he was engaged with 
France, and with the earl of Anjou, who held Maine against 
him. And whilst he was there he deprived the earl of Ev- 
reux and William Crispin of their lands, and drove them out 
of Normandy : and he restored to Philip de Brause the es- 
tates wliich had been taken from him, and he caused Robert 
de Belcsme to be seized and put into prison. This was a 
very good year as to the crops, the trees and fields being very 
fruitful ; but it was a very heavy and a sorrowful time, by 
reason of a dreadful pestilence among men. 

A. 1113. This year king Henry was in Normandy at 
Christmas, at Easter, and at Pentecost. And in the summer 
he sent hither Robert de Belesme, to be confined in Wareham 
castle, and he himself came to this land soon afterwards. 

A. 1114. This year, at Christmas, king Henry held his 
court at Windsor, and he held no court again this year. 
And at Midsummer he entered Wales with an army, and the 
Welsh came and treated with the king, and he caused castles 
to be built in that country. And in September he went over 
sea to Normandy. Li the end of May, this year, a strange 
star with a long light was seen shining for many nights. 
TM<E year also there was so great an ebb of the tide every 
where in one day, as no man remembered before, so that 
men went through the Thames both riding and walking, east 
of London bridge. This year there were very high winds in 
the month of October, and more especially on the night of 
the octaves of St. Martin, as was apparent in all woods and 
towns. Tliis year also the king gave the archbishopric of 
Canterbury to Ralph bishop of Rochester ; and Thomas [II. j 
archbishop of York died, and the king's chaplain Thurstan 
succeeded him. At this time the king went towards the sea, 
and he would have gone over but he was detained by tho 
weather. In the meanwhile he sent his writ to Ernulf ab- 
bat of Peterborough, desiring him to come to him with speed. 


for that he would speak with him on sometliing of import- 
ance. On Ernulfs arrival, the king and the archbisho[)S 
and bishops, and the English nobility who attended tlie king, 
forced him to accept the bishopric of Rochester ; he with- 
stood them long, but his resistance availed nothing. And 
the king commanded the archbishop to take him to Canter- 
bury, and to consecrate him as bishop whether he would or 
not. This was done in the town called Burne* on the 17th 
before the Kalends of October. When the monks of Pet(M-- 
borough heard this, they were so sorry as never before, be- 
cause Ernulf was a very good and a mild man, and did much 
good within the monastery and out of it whilst he remained 
there. May Almighty God be ever with him ! Soon after- 
wards, at the request of the archbishop of Canterbury, the 
king gave that abbacy to a monk of Sieyes named John. 
And soon after this the king and the archbishop sent him to 
Rome for the archbishop's pall, and with him a monk named 
Warner, and the archdeacon John the archbishop's nephew, 
and they sped well on their journey. This was done on the 
11th before the Kalends of October, at the town called Ruge- 
nor (Rowner, near Gosport), and the same day the king took 
ship at Portsmouth. 

A. 1115. This year, during Christmas, king Henry was 
in Normandy, and whilst he was there he caused all the 
chief men of Normandy to do homage and swear oaths of 
allegiance to his son William, whom he had by his queen; 
and afterwards in the month of July he returned hither. 
This year the winter was so severe with snow and with 
frost, that no man then living remembered a harder: and 
it occasioned much disease among the cattle. This year 
pope Paschal sent hither a pall to archbishop Ralph, and 
he received it with much pomp at his see of Canterbury. 
Anselm an abbat of Rome, the nephew of archbishop Aii- 
selm, and John abbat of Peterborough, brought the pall 
from Rome. 

A. 1116. This year, at Christmas, king Henry was at 
St. Alban's, and tliere he caused the monastery to be con- 
secrated; and at Easter he was at Wudiham.j This year 

* " East Boume, in Sussex, where the king was waiting for a fair wind 
to carry him over sea." — Inglj^ml '•' Sittingbum."— Mis» Gu&n£t. 
•k Odiliam. 


also, the winter being severe and long, it was a very heavy 
time for the cattle and all things. And soon after Easter 
the king went over sea, and much treachery was practisui, 
and there was plundering and taking of castles between 
France and Normandy. The chief cause of enmity was 
that king Henry aided his nephew earl Theobald de Blois, 
who was then at war with his lord Louis king of France. 
This was a very calamitous year, the crops being spoiled by 
the heavy rains, which came on just before August and 
lasted till Candlemas. Mast also was so scarce this year 
that none was to be heard of in all this land, or in Wales : 
moreover this land and nation were many times sorely op- 
pressed by the taxes which the king raised both within the 
towns and out of them. This year also the whole of the 
monastery of Peterborough was burnt, with all the houses, 
excepting the chapter-house and the dormitory : and the 
greater part of the town was burnt also. All this happened 
on a Friday, being the 2nd day before the Nones of August. 

A. 1117. All this year king Henry abode in Normandy, 
because of the war with the king of France and his other 
neighbours: then in the summer the king of France, and 
the earl of Flanders with him, entered Normandy with an 
army and remained in the country one night, and went away 
again in the morning without fighting. And Normandy was 
greatly oppressed by taxes and by the levies of troops that 
king Henry raised to oppose them. This nation also v/as 
sorely aggrieved in like manner, to wit, by the manifold 
taxes. This year also there was a violent storm of thunder 
and lightning, rain and hail, on the night before the Kalends 
of December ; and on the 3rd nigljt before the Ides of Decem- 
ber the moon appeared for a long time as it were bloody, and 
then it was darkened. Also, on the night of the 17th before 
the Kalends of January the heaven appeared very red, as if 
it were burning. And on the octave of St. John the Evan- 
gelist's day there was a great earthquake in Lombardy, by 
which many monasteries, towers, and houses were thrown 
down, and the inhabitants suffered greatly. This was a very 
bad year for tlie corn, through the rains which ceased scarcely 
at all. And Gilbert abbat of Westminster died on tlie 8th 
befors the Ides of December, and Farit* abbat of Abingduu 

* 1 iricius is the Latin name. li be tlie same who WTOte ti)6 i»f« ol 

A.D. 1118, 1119. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 185 

died on tlie 7th before the Kalends of March. Aiid in th6 
same year 

A. 1118. All this year king Henry was in Normandy, 
Deing at war with the king of France, and with the earl ot 
Aiijoii, and with the earl of Flanders. And the earl ot 
Flanders was Avounded in Normandy, on which he returned 
to Flanders. The king was greatly impoverished by this 
war, and lost much money and land, and he was most 
liarassed by liis own men, who continually revolted and be- 
trayed him, and went over to his enemies, and treacherously 
gave up their castles in the king's despite. England paid 
dearly for all this by the manifold taxes which ceased not all 
this year. This year, one evening in Epiphany week, there 
^as dreadful lightning which caused many deaths. And 
queen Matilda died at Westminster on the Kalends of May, 
and was buried there. And Robert earl of Mellent died 
also this year. This year also, on St. Thomas's day, there 
was so exceedingly high a wind that none who then lived 
remembered a greater, and this might be seen everywhere 
from the state of the houses and of the trees. Pope Paschal 
also died this year, and John of Gaeta, whose other name 
was Gelasius, succeeded to the popedom. 

A. 1119. All this year king Henry remained in Normandy, 
and was greatly perplexed by the war with the king of France, 
and by the treachery of liis own men, who were continually 
revolting from him, till at length the two kings with their 
forces met in Normandy. The king of France was there put 
to flight and all his best men taken, and many of king 
Henry's vassals who with the garrisons of their castles had 
been against him, now submitted, and were reconciled to 
him, and some of the castles he took by force. This year, 
William the son of king Henry and of queen Matilda went 
to Normandy to his father, and the daughter of the earl of 
Anjou was there given and wedded to liim. On Michaelmas 
eve there was a great earthquake in some parts of this land ; 
and it was felt most in Gloucestershire and Worcestershire. 
The same year pope Gelasius died on this side of the moun- 
tains, and he was buried at Cluny ; and the archbishop ot 
Vienne was chosen pope, his name was Calixtus. He 

bif*hi)j) AMheJra, published in the end of my edition of Aldlielm'g woik*? 
lAidhtlrni Opera, Oxon. Lond. et Cant. 1845.] 

185 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE, a. d. 1119-1121, 

afterwards came to Rlieims, in France, on the feast of St. 
Luke the evangelist, and held a council there. And 
Thurstan archbishop of York journeyed thither, and because 
he received consecration from the pope, against right, and to 
the prejudice of the see of Canterbury, and against the 
king's will, Henry wliolly forbade his return to England ; 
and being thus deprived of his archbishopric, he proceeded 
with the pope towards Rome. This year also Baldwin earl 
of Flanders died of the wound which he had received in 
Normandy, and was succeeded by Charles the son of his 
aunt and of St. Canute, king of Denmark. 

A. 1120. This year peace was made between the kings of 
England and of France, and after this all king Henry's own 
men in Normandy made their peace with him ; also the earls 
of Flanders and of Ponthieu. Then the king ordered and 
disposed of his castles and land in Normandy after his own 
will ; and so, before Advent, he returned to England. And 
the king's two sons William and Richard were drowned in 
tlie passage, together with Richard earl of Chester, and 
Ottuel his brother ; and very many of the king's court, 
stewards, and chamberlains, and butlers, and other men in 
olfice, and an innumerable multitude of all ranks, were also 
h)st. The manner of their death was a twofold grief to their 
friends, first because they lost their lives so suddenly, and 
next that few of their bodies were ever found. And this 
year that remarkable light twice came upon our Lord's 
sepulchre at Jerusalem, once at Easter, and again on the 
Assumption of St. Mary, according to the report of men of 
credit, who came from thence. And Thurstan archbishop of 
York was reconciled to the king through the pope, and he 
came to this land, and was put in possession of his arch- 
bishopric, though much against the will of the archbishop of 

A. 1121. This year, at Christmas, king Henry was at 
Bramton, and before Candlemas Athelis was given him to 
wife at Windsor, and afterwards consecrated queen ; she was 
tlie daughter of the duke of Louvain. And the moon was 
eclipsed on the night before the Nones of April, being the 
fourteenth day of the moon. And the king was at Berkley 
at Easter, and the Pentecost following he held a p:reat couii; 
at Westminster, and in the summer he entered Wales with 


an army, and the Welsh came to meet him, and made a 
treaty with him on his own terms. This year the earl of 
Aiijou returned from Jerusahyn to his own land, and after 
this he sent hither to fetch away his dangliter who had been 
married to the king's son William. And on the night of 
Cliristmas eve there was a very high wind throughout tliis 
land, as might be seen plaitdy in its effects. 

A. 1122. This year king Henry was at Norwich at 
Christmas, and at Easter he was at Northampton. And tlie 
town of Gloucester was burned the Lent before, for while 
the monks were singing mass, the deacon having begun the 
gospel '•'• PrcBteriens Jesiis,^^ the fire fell on the top of tlie 
steeple,* and burned the whole monastery, and all the treasures 
in it, excepting a few books and three vestments : this haj)- 
pened on the eighth before the Ides of March. And there 
was a very high wind on the Tuesday after Palm Sunday, 
tlie eleventh before the Kalends of April : after this many 
strange tokens were noticed throughout England, and many 
ghosts were seen and heard. And on the night of the eighth 
before the Kalends of August, there was a great earthquake 
throughout Somersetshire and Gloucestershire. Again on 
the sixth before the Ides of September, St. Mary's day, 
there was a very high wind, which continued from nine in 
the morning till dark night. The same year Ralph arch- 
bisliop of Canterbury died on the thirteenth before the 
Kalends of November. After this many shipmen were at 
sea, and on the water, and said that they saw a fire in the 
north-east, large and broad, near the earth, and that it grew 
in height unto the welkin, and the welkin divided into four 
parts and fought against it, as it would have quenched it ; 
nevertheless the fire flamed up to heaven. They observed 
this fire at day-break, and it lasted until it was light every 
where : this was on the seventh before the Ides of l3ecember, 

A. 1123. This year king Henry was at Dunstable at 
Christmas, and the messengers from the earl of Anjou came 
to him there, and he proceeded thence to Woodstock, and his 

* By steeple we are here to understand not a spire, but a tower ; spires 
not bijing then invented. 1 believe 'siear ' is the word in Saxon to express 
^)\»i we mean by a spire ; 'stepel,' or 'steopel,' signifying only a sleep, 
loity, or perpendicular structure ; and our old antiquarians very properly 
Bftke a distinction between a spire-steeple and a tower-steeple." — Imgjum. 


bishops and all his court with him. Now it fell out on a 
Wednesday, being the fourth before the Ides of January, 
that the king rode in his deer-park, and Roger bishop of 
Salisbury was on one side of him, and Robert Bloet bishop 
of Lincoln on the other ; and they rode there talking. Then 
the bishop of Lincoln sank down, and said to the king, 
*' My lord king ! I am dying," and the king alighted from liis 
hoi^se, and took him between his arms, and bade them bear 
him to his inn, and he soon lay there dead ; and they took 
his body with much pomp to Lincoln, and Robert bishop of 
Chester,* who was called Pecceth, buried him befOTe St. 
Mary's altar. Soon after this the king sent his writs over 
all England, and desired his bishops, his abbats, and his 
thanes, that they should all come to the meeting of his witan 
at Gloucester, on Candlemas-day, and they obeyed ; and 
when they were there assembled the king bade them choose 
to themselves whomsoever they would as archbishop of 
Canterbury, and that he would confirm their choice. Then 
the bishops spake among themselves, and said that they 
would never more have a man of any monastic order as 
archbishop over them. And they all with one accord went 
to the king, and entreated that they might choose one of the 
clergy for their archbishop, and to this the king consented. 
All this had been set on foot by tlie bishop of Salisbury, and 
by the bishop of Lincoln before he died, for they never loved 
the rule of monks, but were ever against monks and their 
rule. And the prior and monks of Canterbury and all 
others of the monastic order who were there, resisted this 
proceeding two full days, but in vain, for the bishop of 
Salisbury f was very powerful, and swayed all England, and 
he was against them with all his might. Then they chose a 
clerk named William of Curboil, he was a canon of a 
monastery called Cliiche ; J and they brought him before tlie 
king, who gave him the archbishopric, and he was received 

* Or Lichfield. Peter, the bishop of that see in 1075 removed it to 
Chester, where it remained for a short period. Hence the bishops are 
frequently styled bishops of Chester. The present bishopri'c of Chester 
was not founded till 1541. 

t Ro<2;er, bishop of Salisbury, was Lord Chief Justice, Lord Chanceii'.^r, 
and Lord Treasurer. 

t "St. Osythe, in Essex ; a priory rebuilt a. 1118, for canons of the 
Aivgvurtiiie order, of which there are considerable remains." — Inoium. 


by all the bishops ; but the monks and carls, and ihnost all 
tlie thanes who were there, would not acknowledge him. 
At this same time the messengers of the earl departed from 
the king dissatisfied, notliing regarding his gifts. At this 
time also a legate arrived from Rome ; his name was Henry, 
and he was abbat of the monastery of St. John of Angelo. 
He came for the Romescot ; and told tlie king that a clerk 
had no right to be set over monks, and that therefore they 
had formerly chosen the archbishop in the chaptei;, as was 
befitting ; but, for love of the bishop of Salisbury, the king 
would not undo his act. Soon afterwards, the archbishop 
went to Canterbury, and was received, though unwillingly, 
and he was forthwith consecrated there by the bishop of 
London, and Ernulf bishop of Rochester, and William 
GifiTard bishop of Winchester, and Bernard bishop of Wales 
(St. David's), and Roger bishop of Salisbury. Then early 
in Lent the archbishop journeyed to Rome for his pall, and 
Bernard bishop of Wales, and Sefred abbat of Glastonbury, 
and Anselm abbat of St. Edmund's, and John archdeacon of 
Canterbury, and GiiFard who was the king's court-chaplain, 
went with him. Thurstan archbishop of York went to Rome 
at the same time by order of the pope, and he arrived three 
days before the archbishop of Canterbury, and was received 
with much honour. Then came the archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and it was a full week before he could obtain an 
audience of the pope, because the pope had been given to 
understand that he had received the archbishopric in opposi- 
tion to the monks of the monastery, and against right ; but 
that which overcometh all the world, namely gold and 
silver,* overcame Rome also, and the pope relented and gave 

• " How fortunate for the -RTiter that the pope and his cardinals did not 
understand Saxon ! The boldness of this remark might otherwise have 
procured him the distinguished honour of an excommunication. Matthew 
Paris has a similjir remark, but less openly expressed, respecting the 
venality of the Roman see : ' qucB nulli deexe consuevit, dummodo albi 
aliquid vol rubei intercedat. An. 1103.' Dr. Ingram might have quoted 
an equally elegant compliment paid to the cardinals, " quorum nares 
odor hicri questus causa infcecavit,'' by Alan of Tewkesbury, if the ortho- 
dox editor of the Brussels edition of Vita Sancti Thomae had not carefully 
expunged the passage : I have only done justice to historical accuracy by 
restoring the ofterusive worda in " Vita Sancti Thonug, vol. i. p. 359, eJiU 
Oavn. et Lond. ** 

190 THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. a.d. 1123. im. 

Iiim hl,=» pall, and the archbishop swore obedience in all things 
that he should impose, on the heads of St. Peter and St. 
Paul, and the pope then sent him home with liis blessing. 
Wliilst the archbishop was abroad, the king gave the 
bishopric of Bath to the queen's chancellor, named Godfrey ; 
he was of Louvain : this was done at Woodstock on the 
Annunciation of St. Mary. Soon afterwards the king went 
to Winchester, where he remained during the festival of 
Easter ; and while there he gave the bishopric of Lincoln to 
a clerk named Alexander, who was a nephew of the bishop 
of Salisbury, and he did this all for love of that bishop. 
Tlien the king proceeded to Portsmouth, and stayed there over 
Pentecost week ; and as soon as he had a fair wind he sailed 
for Normandy, having committed all England to the care 
and administration of Roger bishop of Salisbury. The king 
was in Normandy all this year, and a great war broke out 
between him and his thanes, for earl Waleram of Mellent, 
and Amalric, and Hugh of Montfort, and William of Romare, 
and many others revolted from him and held their castles 
against him ; and the king on his part opposed them with 
vigour, and the same year he won from Waleram his castle 
of Pont-Audemer, and from Hugh that of Montfort, and 
after this his aifairs continued to prosper more and more. The 
same year, before the bishop of Lincoln came to his see, 
nearly the whole town of Lincoln was burnt, with a great 
number of persons, both men and women, and so much harm 
was done that no man could tell another how great the 
damage was. This happened on the fourteenth before the 
Kalends of June. 

A. 1124. All this year king Henry was in Normandy, 
being detained there by his great wars with Louis king of 
France, and the earl of Anjou, and with his own subjects 
most of all. Then it befell on the day of the annunciation of 
St. iNIary, that Waleram earl of Mellent was going from one 
of his castles called Beaumont, to another, Watteville, and 
Amalric the steward of the king of France, and Hugh the 
son of Gervais, and Hugh of Montfort, and many other gc^)d 
knights went with him. Then the king's knights from all 
the neighbouring castles came against them, and fought with 
them, and put them to flight, and they took the earl Waleram, 
(yid Hugh the son of Gervais, and Hugh of Montfort, and 


^ve and twenty othor kniglits, and brouglit them to the king ; 
fi\d the king caused earl VValeram and Hugh the son of 
Nervals to be confined in the castle of Rouen, and he pent 
ilugh of Montfort to England, and caused him to be put in 
•4rong bonds in that of Gloucester, and as many of the others 
as he thought fit he sent north and south to his castles for 
confinement. Then the king went on, and won all earl 
Waleram's castles in Normandy, and all the others which his 
enemies held against him. All this was on account of the 
son of Robert earl of Normandy named William. The same 
William had married the younger daughter of Fulk earl of 
Anjou, and for this cause the king of France, and all the 
farls and great men held with him, and said that the king 
did wrongfully keep his brother Robert in confinement, and 
that he had unjustly driven his son William out of Nor- 
mandy. This year there was much unseasonable weather 
which injured the corn and all fruits in England, so that, 
i>etween Christmas and Candlemas, one acre's seed of wheat, 
that is, two seedlips, sold for six shillings, and one of barley, 
that is, three seedlips, for six shillings, and one acre's seed of 
oats, being four seedlips, for four shillings. It was thus, 
because corn was scarce, and the penny* was so bad, that 
the man who had a pound at the market, could hardly, for 
any thing, pass twelve of these pennies. The same year, the 
holy bishop of Rochester Ernulf, who had been abbat of 
Peterborough, died on the Ides of March. After this died 
Alexander king of Scotland, on the 9th before the Kalends of 
May, and his brother David, then earl of Northamptonshire, 
succeeded him, and held at the same time both the kingdom 
of Scotland and the English earldom. And the pope of 
Rome called Calixtus died on the 19th before the Kalends of 
tJanuary, and Honorius succeeded to the popedom. Tlie 
.same year, after St. Andrew's day, and before Christmas, 
Ralph Basset, and the king's thanes held a witenagemot at 
Iluncothoe, in Leicestersliire, and there they hanged more 
thieves than had ever before been executed within so short 
a time, being in all four and forty men ; and they depi-ived 
BIX men of their eyes and certain other members.| Many 

♦ The pennies were of silver at this time. 

f ** Of here aegon and of here stanes," — Original tesU 


men of truth said that several of them suffered with great 
injustice, but our Lord God Almighty, who seeth and 
knoweth all hidden things, seeth that the miserable people is 
oppressed with all unrighteousness ; first men are bereaved 
of their property, and then they are slain. Full heavy a 
year was this ; he wlio had any property was bereaved of it 
by heavy taxes and assessments, and he who had none, 
starved with hunger. 

A. 1125. Before Christmas, this year, king Henry sent 
from Normandy to England, and commanded that all the 
mint-men of England sliould be deprived of their limbs, 
nameiy of their right hands and of certain other members. 
And this because a man might have a pound, and yet not be 
able to spend one penny at a market. And Roger bishop of 
Salisbury sent over all England, and desired all of them to 
come to Winchester at Christmas ; and when they came 
thither liis men took them one by one, and cut off their right 
hands. All this was done within the twelve days, and with 
much justice, because they had ruined this land with the great 
quantity of bad metal which they all bought. This year the 
pope of Rome sent John of Crema, a cardinal, to this land. He 
first came to the king in Normandy, and the king received him 
with much honour, and commended him to William archbishop 
of Canterbury, who conducted him to Canterbury ; and he was 
there received with much pomp, and a great procession, and 
he sang the high mass at Christ's altar on Easter day ; and then 
he journeyed over all England, to all the bishoprics and 
abbacies, and he was honourably received every where, and 
all gave him great and handsome gifts ; and in September 
he held his council in London full three days, (beginning) on 
the Nativity of St. Mary, with the archbishops, bishops, and 
abbats, and the clergy and laity, and he sanctioned the laws 
which archbishop Anselm had made, and he enacted many 
others, though they remained in force but a little while. 
Thence he went over sea soon after Michaelmas, and so to 
Rome. William archbishop of Canterbury, and Thurstan 
archbishop of York, and Alexander bishop of Lincoln, and 
John bishop of Lothian (Glasgow), and Geoffrey abbat of 
St Alban's accompanied him, and were received with great 
honour by the pope Honorius, and they remained there the 
whole winter. The same year there was so great a flood on 

A.i>. 1126. 1127. THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. 103 

St. Lawrence's day, that many towns were deluged, and men 
drowned, the bridges were broken up, and the corn fiehls and 
meadows spoiled ; and there was famine and disease upon 
men and cattle ; and it was so bad a season lor all fruits as 
had not been for many years before. The same year John 
abbat of Peterborough died on the 2nd before the Ides of 

A. 1126. This year king Henry was in Normandy till 
after harvest ; and he came to this land between the nativity 
of St. Mary, and Michaelmas, accompanied by the queen, 
and by his daughter whom he had before given in marriage 
to the emperor Henry of Lorrain. He brought with him 
the earl Waleram, and Hugh the son of Gervais, and he 
imprisoned the earl at Bridge-north, and he afterwards sent 
him to Wallingford, and he sent Hugh to Windsor, and 
caused him to be kept in strong bonds. And after Michael- 
mas David king of Scotland came hither, and king Henry 
received him w4th much honour, and he abode through the 
year in this land. The same year the king caused his 
brother Robert to be taken from Roger bishop of Salisbury, 
and delivered to his son Robert earl of Gloucester, and he 
caused him to be removed to Bristol, and put into the castle. 
All this was done through the advice of his daughter, and of 
her uncle David king of Scotland. 

A. 1127. This year, at Christmas, king Henry held his 
court at Windsor, and David,, king of Scotland, was there, 
and all the head men of England, both clergy and laity. 
And the king caused the archbishops, bishops, abbats, earls, 
and ail the thanes who were present, to swear to place Eng- 
land and Normandy, after his death, in the hands of his 
daughter the princess, who had been the wife of the emperor 
of Saxony. And then he sent her to Normandy, accom- 
y^anied by her brother Robert, earl of Gloucester^ and by 
Brian, the son of the earl Alan Fergan ; and he caused her 
to be wedded to the son of the earl of Anjou, named 
Geoffrey Martell. Howbeit this displeased all the French 
and the English, but the king did it to have the alliance* of 

* Mis3 Gumey renders this " to obtain peace from,' following Gibson 
wlio turns ' sibbe' into Latin by pacem, which Ingrair. justly disjxpprove* 
of, on the ground that the powerful Henry would hardly fear so small « 
potentate as the earl of Anjou. 


the earl of Anjou and aict aa^ainst his nephew William. The 
same year Charles, earl of Flanders, was slain in Lent by his 
own men, as he lay before the altar in a church, and prayed 
to God during mass. And the king of France brought 
William, the son of the earl of Normandy, and gave him the 
earldom, and the men of Flanders received him. The same 
William had before taken to wife the daughter of the earl of 
Anjou, but they were afterwards divorced because of their 
nearness of kin, and this through the interference of Henry, 
king of England; he afterwards married the sister of the 
king of France, and on this account the king gave him the 
earldom of Flanders. The same year Henry gave the abbacy 
of Peterborough to an abbat named Henry of Poitou, who 
was in possession of the abbacy of St. Jean d'Angeli ; and 
all the archbishops and bishops said that this grant was 
against right, and that he could not have in hand two ab- 
bacies. But the same Henry made the king believe that ho 
had given up his abbey on account of the great disquietude 
of the land, and that he had done so by the order and with 
the leave of the pope of Rome, and of the abbat of Cluny, 
and because he was legate for collecting the Rome-scot. 
Nevertheless it was not so, but he wished to keep both 
abbeys in his own hands, and he did hold them as long as it 
was the will of God. Li his clerical state he was bishop of 
Soissons, afterwards he was a monk at Cluny, then prior of 
the same monastery, and next he was prior of Sevigny ; 
after this, being related to the king of England and to the 
earl of Poitou, the earl gave him the abbey of St. Jean 
d'Angeli. Afterwards, by his great craft, he obtained the 
archbishopric of Besan^on, and kept possession of it three 
day; and then lost he it right worthily, in that he had 
gotten it with all injustice. He then obtained the bishopric 
of Saintes, which was five miles from his own abbey, and he 
kept this for nearly a week, but here again the abbat of 
Clugny displaced him, as he had before removed him from 
Besan9on. Now he bethought liimself, that if he could be 
sheltered in England, he might have all his will, on whicli 
he besought the king, and said to him that he was an old 
man, and completely broken, and that he could not endure 
the wrongs and oppressions of that land, and he asked the 
king himself, and through all his friends, by name for the 


abbacy of Peterborough. And the king granted it to him, 
forasmuch as he was Iiis kinsman, and in that he had been 
one of the first to swear oaths, and to bear witness, when the 
son of the earl of Normandy and the daughter of the earl of 
Anjou were divorced on the plea of kindred. Thus vex- 
atiously was the abbacy of Peterborough given away at Lon- 
don, between Christmas and Candlemas ; and so Henry 
went with the king to Winchester, and thence he came to 
Peterborough, and there he lived even as a drone in a hive ; 
as the drone eateth and di'aggeth forward to himself all that 
is brought near, even so did he ; and thus he sent over sea 
all that he could take from religious or from seculai*, both 
within and without ; he did there no good, nor did he leave 
any there. Let no man think lightly of the marvel that we 
are about to relate as a truth, for it was full well known 
over all the country. It is this; that as soon as he came 
there,* it was on the Sunday, when men sing " Exurge 
quare Domine;" several persons saw and heard many 
hunters hunting. — These hunters were black, and large, and 
loathly, and their hounds were all black, with wide eyes, and 
ugly, and they rode on black horses and on black bucks. 
This was seen in the very deer-park of the town of Peter- 
borough, and in all the woods from the same town to Stam- 
ford; and the monks heard the blasts of the horns which 
they blew in the night. Men of truth kept in the night 
their watch on them, and said that there might well be about 
twenty or thirty horn-blowers. This was seen and heard 
from the time that the abbat came thither, all that Lent, 
until Easter. Such was his entrance, of his exit we can say 
nothing yet : God knoweth it. 

A. 1128. All tliis year king Henry was in Normandy, on 
account of the war between him and his nephew the earl oi 
Flanders ; but the earl was wounded in battle by a servant, 
and being so wounded he went to the monastery of St. Ber- 
lin, and forthwith he was made a monk, and lived five days 
after, and then died, and was buried there: God rest his 
soul ! He was buried on the 6th before the Kalends of 

• * Thaer' in the original, not * thider.* Dr. Ingram remarks, that this 
IB the first instance of the negligent use of the wcrd ' there' for " thither.' 
But use is second nature, and in conversation at Jeast, the fcjsaer of these 
•otda has entirely supersedsd the latter. 



August. The same year died Randulph PasseflamLard 
bishop of Durham, and he was buried there on the Nones 
of September. And this year the aforesaid abbat Henry 
went home to his own monastery in Poitou, with the king's 
leave. He had given the king to understand that he would 
wholly quit that monastery, and that country, and abide 
with him in England, and at his monastery at Peterborough. 
But so it was not, for he spake thus guilefully, wishing to 
remain there a twelvemonth or more, and then to return 
again. May Almighty God have mercy upon this wretched 
place ! The same year Hugh of the Temple came from 
Jerusalem to the king in Normandy, and the king received 
him with much honour, and gave him much treasure in gold 
and silver, and afterwards he sent him to England, and 
there he was well received by all good men, and all gave 
him treasures ; and in Scotland also : and they sent in all a 
great sum of gold and silver by him to Jerusalem. And He 
invited the people out to Jerusalem, and there went with 
liim and after him so great a number, as never before since 
the first expedition in the days of pope Urban. Yet this 
availed little : he said that there was a furious war between 
the Christians and the heathens, and when they came there 
it was nothing but leasing. Thus were all these people 
miserably betrayed. 

A. 1129. This year the king sent to England after earl 
Waleram, and after Hugh the son of Gervase ; and there 
they gave him hostages, and Hugh went home to France 
his own country, and Waleram remained with the king, and 
the king gave him all his lands, excepting his castle alone. 
Then the king came to England in harvest, and the earl 
came with him, and they were as great friends as they had 
been enemies before. Then soon, by the king's counsel and 
consent, William archbishop of Canterbury sent over all 
England, and commanded the bishops, and abbats, and arch- 
deacons, and all the priors, monks, and canons of all the 
^ells of England, and all who had the charge and oversight 
if the Christian religion, that they should come to London 
at Michaelmas, to hold conference upon all God's rights. 
^Vhen they came thither, the meeting began on the Monday 
and lasted till the Friday, and it came out that it was all 
concerning the wives of archdeacons and priests, that they 


should part with them by St. Andrew's day ; and that he 
wlio woiihl not do this, shouhl forego liis church, his house, 
and his home, and never be permitted again to claim them. 
Tliis was ordered by William archbishop of Canterbury, and 
all the bishops of England : and the king gave them leave to 
depart, and so they went home, and these decrees were in no 
respect observed, for all kept their wives, by the king's per- 
mission, even as before. The same year William Giffard 
bishop of Winchester died, and was buried there on the 8th 
before the Kalends of February ; and after Michaelmas the 
king gave the bishopric to his nephew Henry abbat of Glas- 
tonbury, and he was consecrated by William archbishop of 
Canterbury on the fifteenth before the Kalends of December. 
The sam« year died pope Honorius, and before he was well 
dead, two popes were chosen. The one was named Peter, 
he was a monk of Clugny, and descended from the greatest 
men of Rome, and the Romans and the duke of Sicily held 
with him ; the other was named Gregory, he was a clerk, 
and he was driven from Rome by the other pope and his 
kinsmen, and he was acknowledged by the emperor of Sax- 
ony, by the king of France, by Henry king of England, and 
by all on this side of the mountains. There was now so great 
a division in Christendom, that the like had never been 
before. May Christ appoint good counsel for his miserable 
people ! The same year there was a great earthquake on 
St. Nicholas's night, a little before day. 

A. 1130. This year the monastery of Canterbury was 
consecrated by archbishop William, on the 4th before the 
Nones of May. The following bishops were there : John of 
Rochester, Gilbert Universal of London, Henry of Win- 
chester, Alexander of Lincoln, Roger of Salisbury, Simon 
of Worcester, Roger of Coventry, Godfrey of Bath, Ever- 
ard of Norwich, Sigefrid of Chichester, Bernard of St. 
David's, Owen of Evreux, in Normandy, and John of Sie- 
zes. On the fourth day after this, king Henry was at Ro- 
chester, and nearly the whole town was burnt down ; and 
archbishop William and the aforesaid bishops consecrated 
St. Andrew's monastery And king Henry went over sea 
to Normandy during harvest. The same year Henry abba/ 
of Angeli came to Peterborough after Easter, and said that 
he had wholly given up that monastery. After him. tiie 


abbat of Clugny named Peter came to England with the 
king's leave, and he was received with much honour wher- 
ever he went ; he came to Peterborough, and there the abbat 
Henry promised that he would obtain for him the monastery 
of Peterborough, and that it should be annexed to Clugny 
but as it is said in the proverb : 

" The hedge still stands 
That parts the lands." 

May Almighty God frustrate evil counsels ! And soon 
afterwards the abbat of Clugny went home to his own 
country. Tliis year was Angus slain by the Scottish army, 
and a great number of persons with him. There was God's 
right wrought upon Mm, for that he was all forsworn. 

A. 1131. This year, on a moonlight night* after Christ- 
mas, during the first sleep, the northern half of the heaven 
was, as it were, a burning fire ; so that all who saw it were 
more afearedj than ever they were before; this happened on 
the 3rd before the Ides of January. The same year there 
was so great a pestilence amongst animals over all England, 
as had not been in the memory of man; it chiefly fell on 
cattle and on swine, so that in the town where ten or twelve 
ploughs had been going, not one remained, and the man, who 
had possessed two or three hundred swine, had not one left 
him. After this the hens died ; and flesh-meat became 
scarce, and cheese and butter. God mend the state of 
things when such is his will ! And king Henry came home 
to England before harvest, after the feast of St. Peter ad vin- 
cula. The same year before Easter the abbat Henry went 
from Peterborough over sea to Normandy, and there he 
spoke with the king, and told him that the abbat of Clugny 
had commanded him to come over, and resign to him the 
abbey of Angely ; and that then, with his leave, he would 
return home : and so he went to his own monastery and 
abode there till Midsummer-day. And on the day after the 
feast of St. John, the monks chose an abbat from among 
themselves, and brought him into the church in procession ; 
they sang Te Deum laudamus, rang the bells, and set him 
on the abbat's seat, and did all obedience to him, even tm 

• " Luna spl end ante." — Gibs. " Monday night." — iMutuji. 
« The original An^ilo-Saxon has it so* ' otfuerd.* 


they would Xj their abbat ; and the earl and all the chief 
men and the monks drove the other abbat Henry out of the 
nonastery, and well they might, for in five and twenty years 
they had never known a good day. All lis great craftiness 
failed liim here, and now it belioved him to creep into any 
corner, and to consider if perchance there yet remained some 
slippery device, by which he might once more betray Christ 
and all Christian people. Then went he to Cliigny, and 
there they kept him, so that he could go neither east nor 
west ; the abbat of Clugny saying that they had lost St. 
John's minster through him, and his great sottishness ; 
wherefore seeing he could give no better compensation, he 
promised and swore on the holy relics, that if he might pro- 
ceed to England he would obtain for them the monastery of 
Peterborough, and would establish there a prior of Clugny, 
a churchwarden, a treasurer, and a keeper of the robes, and 
that he w^ould make over to them all things both within and 
without the monastery. Thus he went into France and 
abode there all the year. May Christ provide for the 
wretched monks of Peterborough, and for that miserable 
place, for now do they stand in need of the help of Christ 
and of all Christian people. 

A. 1132. This year king Henry returned to this land; 
then the abbat Henry came, and accused the monks of Peter- 
borough to the king, because he desired to subject that mon- 
astery to Clugny ; so that the king was well nigh beguiled, 
and sent for the monks ; but by God's mercy, and through 
the bishops of Salisbury and Lincoln, and the other great 
men who were there, he found out that the abbat dealt 
treacherously. When he could do no more, he wished 
that his nephew might be abbat of Peterborough, but this 
was njt the will of Christ. It was not very long after 
this that the king sent for him, and made him give up the 
abbey of Peterborough, and depart out of the country, and 
the king granted the abbacy to a prior of St. Neot's named 
Martin, and he came to the monastery, right worshipfuUy 
attended, on St. Peter's day. 

A. 1135. This year, at Lammas, king Henry went over 
sea : and on the second day, as he lay asleep in the ship, the 
day was darkened universally, and the sun became as if it 
were a moon three nights old. with the stars sliining round it 


at mid-day. Men greatly marvelled, and great fear ^ell on 
them, and they said that some great event should follow there- 
after — and so it was, for the same year the king died in Nor- 
mandy, on the day after the feast of St. Andrew. Soon did 
this land fall into trouble, for every man greatly began to rob 
his neighbour as he might. Then king Henry's sons and 
his friends took his body, and brought it to England, and 
buried it at Reading. He was a good man, and great wab 
the awe of him ; no man durst ill treat another in his time : 
he made peace for men and deer. Whoso bare his burden 
of gold and silver, no man durst say to him ought but good. 
In the meantime his nephew Stephen de Blois had arrived in 
England, and he came to London, and the inhabitants re- 
<3eived him, and sent for the archbishop, William Corboil, 
who consecrated him king on midwinter-day. In this king's 
time was all discord, and evil-doing, and robbery ; for the 
powerful men who had kept aloof, soon rose up against him ; 
the first was Baldwin de Redvers, and he held Exeter against 
the king, and Stephen besieged him, and afterwards Baldwin 
made terms with him. Then the others took their castles, 
and held them against tlie king, and David, king of Scotland, 
bfitook him to Wessington [Derbysliire], but notwithstanding 
liis array, messengers passed between them, and they came 
together, and made an agreement, though it availed little. 

A. 1137. This year king Stephen went over sea to Nor- 
mandy, and he was received there because it was expected 
that he would be altogether like his uncle, and because he 
had gotten possession of his treasure, but this he distributed 
and scattered foolishly. King Henry had gathered together 
much gold and silver, yet did he no good for his soul's 
sake with the same. When king Stephen came to Eng- 
land, he held an assembly at Oxford ; and there he 
seized Roger bishop of Salisbury, and Alexander bishop of 
Lincoln, and Roger the chancellor, his nephew, and he kept 
them all in prison till they gave up their castles. When the 
traitors perceived that he was a mild man, and a soft, and a 
good, and that he did not enforce justice, they did all wonder. 
They had done homage to him, and sworn oath^, but they no 
faith kept; all became forsworn, and broke their allegi- 
ance, for every rich man built his castles, and defended them 
against him, and they filed the land full of castles. Thejf 


greatly oppressed the wretched people by making them work 
at these castles, and when the castles were finished they filled 
them with devils and evil men. Then they took those wliom 
they suspected to have any goods, by night and by day, seizing 
both men and women, and they put them in prison for their gold 
and silver, and tortured them with pains unspeakable, for never 
were any martyrs tormented as these were. They hung some 
up by their feet, and smoked them with foul smoke ; some by 
tlieir thumbs, or by the head, and they hung burning things on 
their feet. They put a knotted string about their heads, and 
twisted it till it went into the brain. They put them into dun- 
geons wherein were adders and snakes and toads, and thus wore 
them out. Some they put into a crucet-house, that is, into 
a chest that was short and narrow, and not deep, and they 
put sharp stones in it, and crushed the man therein so that 
they broke all his limbs. There were hateful and grim 
things called Sachenteges in many of the castles, and Avhich 
two or three men had enough to do to carry. The Sachen- 
tege was made thus : it was fastened to a beam, having a 
sharp iron to go round a man's throat and neck, so that he 
might no ways sit, nor lie, nor sleep, but that he must bear 
all the iron. Many thousands they exhausted with hunger. 
I cannot and I may not tell of all the wounds, and all the 
tortures that they inflicted upon the wretched men of this 
land ; and this state of things lasted the nineteen years that 
vStephen was king, and ever grew worse and worse. They were 
continually levying an exaction from the towns, which they 
called Tenserie,* and when the miserable inhabitants had no 
more to give, then plundered they, and burnt all the towns, 
so that well mightest thou walk a whole day's journey nor 
ever shouldest thou find a man seated in a town, or its lands 

Then was corn dear, and flesh, and cheese, and butter, for 
there was none in the land — wretched men starved with 
hunger — some lived on alms who had been erewhile rich : 
some fled the country — never was there more misery, and 
never acted heathens worse than these. At length they 
spared neither church nor churchyard, but they took all that 
was valuable therein, and then burned the church and all to- 
gether . Neither did they spare the lands of bishops, nor oi 
* A payment to the superior lord for protection. 


abbats, nor of priests ; but they robbed the monka and tlie 
clergy, and every man plundered his neighbour as much as 
lie could. If two or three men came riding to a town, all 
the township fled before them, and thought that they were 
robbers. The bishops and clergy were ever cursing them, 
but this to them was nothing, for they were all accursed, and 
foi sworn, and reprobate. The earth bare no corn, you 
might as well have tilled the sea, for the land was all ruined 
by such deeds, and it was said openly that Christ and his 
saints slept. These things, and more than we can say, 
did we suifer during nineteen years because of our sins. 
Through all this evil time the abbat Martin held his abbacy 
for twenty years and a half and eight days, with many diffi- 
culties: and he provided the monks and guests with all 
necessaries, and kept up much alms in the house ; and withal 
he wrought upon the church, and annexed thereto lands and 
rents, and enriched it greatly, and furnished it with robes : 
and he brought the monks into the new monastery on St. 
Peter's day with much pomp. This was in the year 1140 
of our Lord's incarnation, the twenty-third year after the 
fire. And he went to Rome and was well received there by 
pope Eugenius, from whom he obtained sundry privileges, to 
wit, one for all the abbey lands, and another for the lands 
that adjoin the monastery, and had he lived longer he meant 
to have done as much for the treasurer's house. And he re- 
gained certain lands that powerful men possessed by force ; 
he won Cotingham and Easton from William Malduit, who 
held Rockingham castle, and from Hugh of Walteville he 
won Hirtlingbery, and Stanwick, and sixty shillings yearly 
out of Oldwinkle. And he increased the number of monks, 
and planted a vineyard, and made many works, and im- 
proved the town ; and he was a good monk and a good man, 
and therefore God and good men loved him. Now will we 
relate some part of what befell in king Stephen's time. In 
his reign the Jews of Norwich bought a Christian child 
before Easter, and tortured him with all the torments where- 
with our Lord was tortured, and they crucified him on Good 
Friday for the love of our Lord, and afterwards buried him. 
They believed that this would be kipt secret, but our Lord 
made manifest that he was a holy martyr, and the monks took 
him and buried him honourably in the m:)nastery and he 


performed manifold and wonderful miracles tla-ough the 
power of our Lord, anc he is called St. William. 

A- 1138. This year David king of Scotland entered this 
Land with an immense army resolving to conquer it, and 
William earl of Albemarle, to whose charge the king had 
committed York, and other trusty men, came against him 
with few troops, and fought with him, and they put the king 
to flight at the Standard, and slew a great pai't of his 

A. 1140. This year Stephen attempted to take Robert 
earl of Gloucester the son of king Henry, but failed, for 
Robert was aware of his purpose. After this, in Lent, the 
sun and the day were darkened about noon, when men eat, 
so that they lighted candles to eat by. This was on the 13th 
before the Kalends of April, and the people were greatly as- 
tonished. After tliis William archbishop of Canterbury 
died, and the king made Theobald, abbat of Bee, archbishoj). 
Then there arose a very great war between the king and 
Randolph earl of Chester, not because the king did not give 
him all that he could ask, even as In. did to all others, but 
that the more he gave them, the wor?e they always carried 
themselves to him. The earl held Lincoln against the king, 
and seized all that belonged to the king there, and the king 
went tliither, and besieged him and his brother William de 
Romare in the castle : and the earl stole out and went for 
Robert earl of Gloucester, and brought him thither with a 
large army ; and they fought furiously against their lord on 
Candlemas-day, and they took him captive, for his men be- 
trayed him and fled, and they led him to Bristol, and there 
they put him into prison and close confinement. Now was 
all England more disturbed than before, and all evil was in 
the land. After this, king Henry's daughter, who had been 
empress of Germany, and was now countess of Anjou, ar- 
rived, and she came to London, and the citizens would ha\ e 
seized her, but she fled with much loss. Then Henry bishop 
of Winchester, king Stephen's brother, spake with earl 
Robert and with the empress, and swore them oatlis that he 
never more would hold with the king his brother, and lie 
cursed all those that did hold with him, and he said that Le 
would give up Winchester to them, and he made them come 
thither. But when they were la that place Stephen's queen 


brought up her strength and besieged them, till there was so 
great a famine in the town, they could endure it no longer 
Then stole they out and lied, and the besiegers were aware 
of them, and followed them, and they took Robert earl of 
Gloucester and led him to Rochester, and imprisoned him 
there : and the empress fled into a monastery. Then wise 
men, friends of the king and of the earl, interfered between 
them, and they settled tliat the king should be let out of pri- 
Boa for the earl, and the earl for the king ; and this was 
done. After this the king and earl Randolph were recon- 
ciled at Stamford, and they took oaths and pledged their 
troth, that neither would betray the other : but this promise 
"»ra.'5 set at nought, for the king afterwards seized the earl in 
Northampton through wicked counsel, and put him in prison, 
but he set him free soon after, through worse, on condition 
that he should swear on the cross, and find hostages that he 
would give up all his castles. Some he did deliver up, and 
others not ; and he did worse than he should have done in 
this country. Now was England much divided, some held 
with the king and some with the empress, for when the king 
was in prison the earls and the great men thought that he 
would never more come out, and they treated with the em- 
press, and brought her to Oxford, and gave her the town. 
When the king was out of prison he heard this, and he took 
his army and besieged her in the tower, and they let her 
down from the tower by night with ropes, and she stole 
away, and she fled : and she went on foot to Wallingford. 
After this she went over sea, and all the Normans turned 
from the king to the earl of Anjou, some willingly, and some 
against their will ; for he besieged them till they gave up 
their castles, and they had no help from the king. Then the 
king's son Eustace went to France, and took to wife tlie sis- 
ter of the king of France : he thought to obtain Normandy 
through this marriage, but little he sped, and that of right, 
for he was an evil man, and did more harm than good wher- 
ever he went : he spoiled the lands, and laid thereon heavy 
taxes : he brought his wife to England, and put her into tho 

castle of ;* she was a good woman but she had little 

bliss with him, and it was not the will of Christ that h« 

* "The MS. is here deficient j bat .... b for * byrig' is discemibltt." 


should bear rule long, and he died, and his m« tlier al-^o. 
And the earl of Anjou died, and Iiis son Henry succeed. 5 1 
him ; and the queen of France was divorced from the kin % 
and she went to the young earl Henry and he took her to 
wife, and received all Poitou with her. Then he came into 
England with a great anny and won castles ; and the king 
marched against him with a much larger army, howheit they 
did not fight, but the archbishop and wise men went between 
them and made a treaty on these terms : that the king sliould 
be lord and king while he lived, and that Henry should be 
king after his death, and that he should consider him as his 
father, and the king him as his son, and that peace and con- 
cord should be between them, and in all England. The king, 
and the earl, and the bishop, and the earls, and all the great 
men swore to observe these and the other conditions that 
were then made. The earl was received with much honour 
at Winchester' and at London, and all did homage to him, and 
^-wore to keep the peace, and it soon became a very good 
peace, such as never was in this land. Then the king was 
more powerful here than ever he was ; and the earl went 
over sea, and all the people loved him, because he did good 
justice, and made peace. 

A. 1154. This year king Stephen died, and he was buried 
with his wife and his son at Faversham ; they had built that 
monastery. When the king died the earl was beyond sea, 
and no man durst do other than good for very dread of him. 
When he came to England he was received with much hon- 
our, and was consecrated king at London on the Sunday be- 
fore Christmas, and he held a great court there : and on the 
same day that Martin abbat of Peterborough should have 
gone thither he sickened, and he died on the 4th before the 
Nones of January. And that day the monks chose another 
abbat from among themselves. He is named William de 
Walteville, a good clerk, and a good man, and well beloved 
of the king and of all good people : and they buried the 
abbat honourably in the church, and soon afterwards the 
abbat elect and the monks went to the king at Oxford, and 
the king gave him the abbacy, and he departed soon after- 
wards to Peterborough, where he remained with the abbat 
before he came home. And the king was received at Peter- 


borough with great respect, and in full procession ; so he 
was also at Ramsey, at Tliorney, and at .... and Spalding, 
&nd . . . .* 

* The MS. is defective. Ramsey and Thomey are elicited from some 
faint traces in the Laud MS. which seem to have escaped the penetration 
of Gibson. The last paragraph, if Gibson's reading be correct, appears to 
relate to some building which the abbat and monks of Peterborough had 
begun about this time. See Gunton's History of Peterborough Minster, 
and Cont. Hug. Candid, ap. Sparke, pp. 92, 93. 



A1x)n, ealdorraan, 22 

Acca, bisliDp of Hexham, 31, 33 

Acley, synod of, 40 

Adrian, emperor of Rome, 5 

Ailriau, le,t,'ate, in England, 26 

Adrian, pope, 39, 40 

Adrian, abbat. See Hadrian 

J-'-lla, king of the Sonth Saxons, 8 

JFA\a, usurper of Northumbria, 49 

^t'.sc, king of Kent, 8 

Agelric, bishop of Selsey, 133 

Agilbert, bishop, 18, 23 

Aidan, bishop of Lindisfarne, IS 

Albinus, abbat of St. Augustine's, xlii 

Alhau (St.), 5 

Albau's (St.) monastery, 183 

AlCTed, king of Northumbria, 37 

Alcuin. See Albinus 

Aldhelm, bishop of Sherborne, 31 

Aldred, bishop, 118, 123, 126, 129, 132, 134, 

Aldulf, archbishop of York, 80, 81, 88, 94 
Aldwulf , bishop of Rochester, 82, 33 
Alexander, bishop of Lincoln, 190 
Alexander, king of Scotland, 180, 191 
Alfric, archbishop of Canterbury, 89-06 
Alfric, ealdorman, 87 
Alfred, king of England, 47-64 
Aifrid, king of Deira, 27, 30 
Alfuu, bishop of Dunwich, 42 
Alfwold, bishop of Sherborne, 85 
Alf wold, king of Northumbria, 3-S, 39 
Alhmund, bishop of Hexham, 37, '6ii 
Alia, king of Northumbria, 10, 12 
Alric killed, 42 
Alwy, bishop of London, 103 
Alwyn, bishop of Winchester, 111, 116, 118 
Anlaf Curran, 77 

Anlaf, king of Northumbria, 74-76 
Anlaf, son of Sihtric, 76 
Anna, king of the East Angles, 18 
Anselm, archbishop of Canterbuiy, 148, 

166, 171, 172, 175-177, 180 
Anselm, abbat of Bury St. Edmund's, 183 
Anwind, a Danish king, 53 
ABser, bishop of Sherborne, 66 
Athelard, archbp. of Canterbury, 40-43 
Athelred^ archbp. of Canterbury, 50, 57 
Athelstan, bishop orf Hereford, 132 
Athelstan, king of Kent, 45, 46 
Athelstan, king of Mereia, 72-75 
Attila, king of the Huns, 6 
Athulf, bishop, 81 
Augustine, archbishop of Canterbury, 

12, 13 

Baccancelde (Beckenham) council, 29 

Bagsac, a Danish king, killed, 51 

Baldred, king of Kent, 44 

Baldulf, bishop of Wliitherne, 40 

Baldwin V., earl of Flanders, 120, 1.36 

Baldwin VI., earl of Flanders, 1.50 

Baldwin VII., eari of Flanders, 182-186 

Banihrough (Bebha), a royal city, 10, 170 

Bassianus, son of Severus, 5 

Bass, mass-priest, 24 

Battle Abbey founded, 159, 168 

Bede (Venerable), 33 

Benedict (Sit.), 8, 9, 1.59 

Beonna, abbat of Peterborough, 38 

Beori^, earl, 117, 121-123 

Beornmod, bishop of Rochester, 42 

Beort, ealdorman, 27, 30 

Bernard, bishop of St. David's, 189 

Berm-ed, king of Mereia, 36 

Bernulf, king of Mereia, 44 

Berthwald, archbishop ot Canterbury, 29j 

32, 38 
Berthwulf, king of Mereia. defeated, 46 
Bertric, king of Wessex, 39, 42 
Bieda arrives in Britain, 9 
Birinus, bishop, 16-18 
Blecca, governor of Lincoln, 16 
Bosa, bishop of York, 27, 28 
Bregowin, archbp. of Canterbury, 36, 37 
Brihtege, bishop of Worcester, 111, 112 
Brinstan, bishop of Winchester, 73 
Britain, 1, 2-6 

Brithmar, bishop of Lichfield, 113 
Birthwin, bishop of Sherborne, 109, 115, 

Britnoth, abbat of Ely, 79 
Brocmail, 13 

Burhred, king of Mereia, 47-52 
Burton abbey, 141 

Cadwalla, king of the West Britons, 16 
Caedwalla, king of Wessex, 27, 28 
Cajsar's, Julius, invasion, 2 
Canterbury' cathedral, 197 
Canute, king of England, 102-113 
Canute, king of Denmark, 156, 161 
Canute, prince of Denmark, 153 
Ceawlin or Celin, king of Wessex, 10, 12 
Cenbert, father of Cajdwalki, 28 
Ceol, king of Wessex, 12 
Ceolnoth, archbp. of Canterbury, 45, 50 
Cedlred, king of Mereia, 31 
Ceolwulf, bishop of Lindsey, 40, 41 
Ceolwulf, king of Northumbria, 32, 33, 



Ceolwulf, kinc? of Wessex, 12, 13 

Oeowirlf, king of Mercia, 43, 44 

Cerdio, king of Wessex, 9 

Chad, bishop of Lichfield, 23 

Ohalk-hythe synod, 39 

Cniarles, earl of Flanders, 186, 194 

Charles (the Fat), 56, 57 

Chertsey monastery, 181 

Chester bishopric, 188 

Chiche (St. Osythe) monastery, 188 

Cissa, king of the South Saxons, 8 

Claudius invades Britain, 3 

Cloveshoo synod, 34, 44 

Coenred, or Kenred, king of Mercia, 3Q, 

Coinwalch. See Kenwalk. 
Colburga, abbess of Berkeley, 43 
Coldingham monastery, 27 
Ojlumba, abljat of lona, 11 
Conwulf , or Cynewulf, bishop of Lindis- 

farne, 33, 38, 39 
Crida, king of Mercia, 12 
Cuichelm, king of the West Saxons, 

Cutha, 11, 12 
Cuthbald, abbat, 25, 26 
Cuthbert, abp. of Canterbury, 34, 36 
Cuthred, king, 17, 18, 23 
Cuthred, king of Kent, 43 
Cuthred, king of Wessex, 33, 34 
Cuthwine defeats the Britons, 12 
Cynegils, king of Wessex, 13-17 
Cyneward, bishop of Wells, 82, 83 
Cynewulf, king of Wessex, 34-39 
Cynric, king of Wessex, 9, 10 

Danes arrive in England, 39 
Daniel, bishop of Winchester, 31-34 
David, king of Scotland, 191, 193, 200, 203 
Degsastaii, 13 

Denewulf , bishop of Winchester, 66 
Beusdedit, archbp. of Canterbury, 19-23 
Doomsday book compiled, 157 
Dudoc, bishop of Wells, 117, 134 
Dunstan (St.), archbishop of Canterbury, 
nt, 76, 87 

E;ul>)ald, king of Kent, 14-17 
Eudljcrt, king of Kent, 32, 34 
Eadbert, king of Northumbria, 33-30, 37 
Eaai)ert Pren, kin? of Kent, 40, 41 
E.-idburga, married to Bertric, 39 
Eadhed, bishop of Sidnacester, 27 
Eaduoth, bishop of Dorchester, 117, 121 
Eadsine, archbp. of Canterbury, 112-122 
Eafy, high steward, murdered, 94 
Ealliard, bishop of Dorchester, 63 
Ealstan, bishop of Sherborne, 44, 46, 49 
Eaubald I., archbishop of York, 38, 41 
Eanbald II., archbishop of York, 41, 42 
Eanliert, bishop of Hexham, 43 
EaniJed, daughter of king Edwin, 15, 15 
Eaiifrid, king of Bernicia, 15, 16 

Eanwulf, earl of Somerton, 46 
Eappa, priest, 22, 23 
Earconbert, king of Kent, 17, 23 
Earcongota, daughter of king Earcon- 
bert, 17 
Eardulf, king of Northumbria, 41, 43 
Eata, bishop of Lindisfarne, 27 
Ebb, the Frisian, slain, 63 
Edgar, king of Mercia, 78-84 
Edgar, etheling, 139-144, 151-179 
Edgar, king of Scotland, 173, 180 
Edgitha, Edward's queen, 115 
Edmund, St., king of East Auglia, 50 
Edmund, the son of Edgar, 82 
Edmund Ironside, 104-107 
Ednoth, bishop of Dorchester, 101, 106 
Edred, king, 77, 78, 82 
Edric, ealdorman of Mercia, 97, 104, lu7 
Edward (the elder), king, 64-73 
Edward (the martyr), 60-86 
Edward (the confessor), 103, 113-140 
Edward, son of Ednmnd, dies, 132-133 
Edwin, abbat of Abingdon, 87 
Edwin, etheling, drowned, 73 
Edwin, king of Northumbria, 13, 15, 16 
Edwy, etheling, banished by Canute, lo7 
Edwy, king of Wessex, 78 
Egljald, abbat of Peterlx)rough, 2b 
Egliert, king of Kent, 23, 24 
Egbert, king of Wessex, 42-45 
Egbert, bishop of York, 33, 37 
Egbert^ abbat of lona, 31, 32 
Egbert II., bishop of Lindisfarne, 43 
Egelric, bp. of Durham, 114, 132, 145, 151 
Egelwine, bishop of Durham, 32, 51 
Egfert, king of Mercia, 39, 40 
Egfrid, king of Northumbria, 24-23 
Eleutherius, bishop of Rome, 5 
Eleutherius, bishop of Winchester, 24 
Elfgar, bishop of Elmham, IDS 
Elfhun, bishop of London, 101, 102 
Elfric, archbishop of York, 109, 110, J ) 
Elfric, bishop of Elmham, 112 
Elfric, ealdorman, 87, 88, 95 
Elfrida, Edgar's queen, 82 
Elfstan, bishop of London, 81, 88 
Elfstan, bishop of Wiltshire, 86 
Elfsy, al)bat of Peterboroii-ih, 81 
Elfsy, bishop of Winchester, 109, 111 
Elfward, bishop of London, 116 
Elfwin, brother to king Egfrid, 27 
Elfwina, queen of Mercia, 69 
Elgar, earl of Mercia, 129-133 
Elmund, king of Kent, 39 
Elphege, bishop of Winchester, 73, 77 
Elphege II., arclibishop of Canterbury, 

87, 89, 96-101 
Elstan, bishop of London, 64 
Elswitha, Alfred's queen, 65 
Ely monastery, 24, 79 
Emma Elgive, 94, 102, 107, 112, 115, 127 
Eorpwald, king of East Anglia, 16 
Eric, king of Northumbria, 77 



Eric, earl of Northurabria, 105, 107 
Ermenred, son of Eadhald, 17 
Eriioat, bishop of JUtchester, 145 
Eniulf, bishop of Rochester, 1S3, 191 
Escwia, king of Wessex, 24, 26 
Escwy, bishop of Dorchester, 8S 
Ethehird, king of VVessex, 32, 33 
EthelbaUl, king of Mercia, 31-36 
EtholbaUl, king of Wessex, 46, 43 
Ethelberga, daughter of king Ethelbert, 

Ethelbert, archbishop of York, 37, S8 
Ethelbert. bishop of Whitberne, 38, 42 
Ethelbert, king of Kent, 10-14 
Echtiibeit il., Kuig ol Kent, 34, 86 
Ethelbert, king of East Anglia, 40 
Ethelbert, k. of Kent, Essex, Ac, 48, 49 
Ethelburga, Ina's queen, 32 
Etheldrida, daughter of king Anna, 24, 

27, 79 
Ethelfled, lady of Mercia, 66-72 
Etlielfrid, king of Northurabria, 12-15 
Ethelgar, archbishop of Canterbury, 82, 

S6, 87 
Ethelnoth, archbishop of Canterbury, 

IDS, 112 
Ethelred, king of Mercia, 19-31 
Ethelred, son of Moll, 37-40 
Ethelred [Ethered], king of Wessex, 49-52 
Ethelred; king of England, 85-105 
Ethelric, king of Northumbria, 12 
Ethelric, bishop of Selsey, 112 
Ethelswitli, queen of Mercia, 57 
Ethehvalch, king of the South Saxons, 23 
Ethelwald, prince, 64, 65 
Ethelwald, bishop of Lindisfarne, 33 
Ethelwald, bishop of Lichfield, 45 
Ethelward, king uf Wessex, 32, 33 
Ethelwerd, high-steward, slain, 93 
Ethelwold, bishop of Winchester, 55, 79, 

82, 84, 87 
Fthelwulf, king of Wessex, 45-48 
' ;ihered, ealdorman of Mercia, 57, 60, 66 
"'Iheric, bishop of Dorchester, 111 
Eustace II. , earl of Boulogne, 119, 164 

Felix, bishop of Dunwich, 17 

Fiugale synod, 39 

Forthhere, 31, 33 

Frithbert, bishop of Hexham, 37 

Frithstan, bishop of Winchester, 66, 73 

Frithwald, bishop of Whitherne, 37 

Gebmund, bishop of Rochester, 29 

Gerard, archbishop of York, ISO 

Geta, son of Severus, 5 

Giso, bishop of Wells, 134 

Glastonbury minster, 28, 155 

Godfrey, bishop of Bath, 190 

Godwin, earl, 111-129 

Godwin III., bishop of Rochester, 100 

Gosfrith, bishop, 162 

Gotltrun, a Danish king, 53, 54, 57 

Qratian, emperor, 6 
Gregory I., pope, 12 
Griffln, Welsh king. 116-135 
Grinketel, bishop of .Selsey, 113, 117 
Gundulph, l)ishop of Rochester, 145 
Gunnilde, bauLshed, 116 
Guthfrith, king of Northurabria, 73 

Hadrian, abbat of St. Augustine's, 89 

Halfdene, a Danish king, 51-53, 66 

Hardecanute, 109, 114 

Harold Harfager killed, 138 

Harold I., king of England, 111-113 

Harold II., 119-141 

Hasten invades England, 58-60 

Heahmund, bishop of Sherborne, 52 

Heandred, bishop of Hexham, 42 

Heathfield (Hatfield), 27 

Heca, bishop of Selsey, 116-118, 133 

Hedda, bishop, 26, 30 

Hengist, a Saxon chieftain, 7, 8 

Henry de Blois, bishop of Winchester, 

197, 203 
Henry I., 157, 159, 169, 174, 200 
Herbert Losange, bishop of Thetford, 168 
Herefrith, bishop of Sebey, 45 
Hereward plunders Peterborough, 149, 

Herman, bishop of Sherborne, 115, 122, 

123, 124 
Higbald, bishop of Lindisfarne, 39, 43 
Higbert, bishop of Dorchester, 39 
Hilda, abbess, 'i7 
Hingwar and Hubba, 50 
Honorius, archbp. of Canterbury, 16, 18 
Honorius, pope, 16 
Horsa, a Saxon chieftain, 7 
Howel, king of West Wales (Cornwall), 73 

Ida, king of Northumbria, 10 

Ina, king of Wessex, 28-42 

Ingild, brother of Ina, 31 

lona monastery, 11 

Ithamar, bishop of Rochester, 20, 22 

Jaruman, bishop of Repton, 20, 22 
John (St.), of Beverley, 28, 32 
Justus, archbishop of Canterbury, 13 

Kenebert, bishop of Winchester, 42 
Kenred, king of Mercia. See Coeured. 
Keutwin, king of Wessex, 26, 27 
Kenulf, king of Mercia, 41, 43 
Kenuif, bishop of Winchester, 81, 88, 98 
Kenwaik, king of Wessex, 17-18 
Kineward, bishop of Winchester, 34 
Kyueburg, sister of Wulfliere, 19-22 
Kyneswith, sister of Wulfhere, 19-22 
Kynsey, archbishop of York, 29-34 

Lambert, archbp. of Canterbury, 37-40 
Lanfranc, abp. of Canterbury, 145-148,164 
Laureutius, archbp. of Canterbury, 14, 15 



Leofgar, bishop of Hereford, 132 
Leofric, bishop of Devon, 115 
Leofric, earl, 115-133 
Leofric, bishop of Exeter, 118 
Leofsy, bishop of Worcester, 111 
Leofwine, bishop of Lichfield, 130 
Leo III., pope, 142, 143 
Living, archbp. of Canterbury, 101, 108 
Living, bishop of Worcester and Glou- 
cester, 113, 115-118 
Lothen and Irling arrive, 116 
Lothere, king of Kent, 23 
Lucius, king of the Britons, 5 
Ludecan, king of ilercia, 44 

Margaret, daughter of Edward, 142, 167 
Malcolm IIL, king of Scotland, 142, 151, 

Maud, daughter of Malcolm, 175 
Maurice, bishop of London, 146, 175, 180 
Maximian, emperor, 6 
Mellitus, archbp. of Canterbury, 13-15 
Merewith, bishop of Somerset, 111 
Milred, bishop of Worcester, 37 
Moll Ethelwald, king of Northumbria, 36 
Morcar, earl of Northumbria, 135-150 
Mull, brother of Csedwalla, 27-29 

Nero, emperor of Rome, 4 

Ninias, bishop, converts the Picts, 11 

Nothelm, archbp. of Canterbury, 33, 34 

Odda, earl of Devon, 120, 127 

Odo, archbishop of Canterbury, 78, 79 

Odo, bishop of Bayeux, 155, 160-164 

Offa, son of king Si.','here, 31 

Oflfa, king of Mercia, 36-40, 42 

Olave, king of Norway, invades England, 

88, 89, 110 
Osbern, bishop of Exeter, 145 
Osbert, king of Northumbria, 49 
Oskytel, a Danish king, 53 
Oskytel, archbishop of York, 82 
Oslac, ealdorman, 81-84 
Osred, king of Northumbria, 31 
Osred II., king of Northumbria, 3D, 40 
Osric I., king of Deira, 16 
Osric 11. , king of Northumbria, 31, 32 
Ostritha, queen of Mercia, 30 
Oswald, archbishop of York, 81, 87 
Oswald, king of Northumbria, 16, 17, 66 
Oswiu, king of Deira, 17, 18 
Oswin, prince, 37 

Oswy (Oswiu), king of Northumbria, 17, 24 
Oswulph, king of Northumbria, 36 

Palladius, his mission to Ireland, 6 
Paulinus, archbishop of York, 13-17 
Paul's (St.) rathedral burnt, 79, 158 
Peada, ealdorman, 18 
Peada, king of Mercia, 18, 19 
Penda. king of Mercia, 15-13 
Pelagius, 6 

Peter, bishop of Lichfield, 145 
Peterborough monastery, 18-26, 38, 50, 

80, 128, 142, 150, 195, 198 
Petrouilla (St.), 153 
Petwine, bishop of Whitherne, 37 
Piegmund, archbishop of Canterbury, xiv, 

59, 72 
Port arrives in England, 9 

Ralph, archbp. of Canterbury, 182, 187 
Ranulf, bp. of Durham, 173, 175, 176, 196 
Reculver monastery, 24 
Redwald, king of East Anglia, 15 
Rees, the Welshman, 125 
Reginald, king of Northumbria, 72, 76 
Poheims, synod at, 117 
Rol^ert, abp. of Canterbury, 119, 122, 123 
Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln, 166, 188 
Robert, bishop of Lichtield, 183 
Robert de Belesme, 173, 170-182 
Robert de Limesey, bishop of Lichfield, 

Robert II., earl of Flanders, 172, 175-182 
Robert II., earl of Northumbria, 169-171 
Robert, son of William I., 1.54, 162-193 
Pwoger, bishop of Salisbury, 188, 192 
Pi.omanus, bishop of Rochester, 14 
Romescot, 171 

Sabert, king of the East Saxons, 13 
Saxon Chronicle, its compilers, v-xix, 1 
Sebbi, king of the East Saxons, 22 
Selred, king of Essex, slain, 34 
Severus, emperor, 5 
Sexberga, eldest daughter of king Anna, 

17, 24 
Sexwulf, bishop of Lichfield, 19-26, 31 
Sideman, bishop of Crediton, 85 
Sigebert, king of Wessex, 34, 35 
Sighard, son of king Sebbi, 22 
Sihtric, king of Northumbria, 73 
Siric, king of the East Angles, 42 
Siric or Sigic, archbishop of Canterbury, 

Siward, abp. of Canterbury, 115, 118, 123 
Siward, bishop of Rochester, 134 
Siward, earl, 115, 126, 129-132 
Sparhafoc, bishop of London, 119, 122 
Stephen, king, 200-205 
Stigand, bishop of Elmham, 114, 115 ; 

trans, to Winchester, 116, 118 ; to 

Canterbury, 128, 129 
Stuff, lord of Isle of Wight, 9, 10 
Suebhard, king of Kent, 29 
Sweyn, earl, 116-126 
Sweyn, king of Denmark, invades 

England, 89, 95, 101-103 
Sweyn III., king of Denmark, invades 

England, 148-153 
Swithulf, bishop of Rochester, 63 
Swithun, bishop of Wincliester, 49 

Tatwine, archbishop of Canterbury, 33 



Theobald, archl>ishop of Canterlmry, 203 
Theologild, archl)p. of Canterbury, 45 
Theodore, archbp. of Canterbury, 22-28 
Thedosius the Vouuger, 6 
Thomas, abp. of York, 145, 175, 180, 182 
Thored, Gunner's sou, 82, 88 
Thurkiil, 9S, 102, 109 
Thurkytel, a Danish earl, 63 
Thurkytel, sou of Nafan, 105 
Till>ert, bishop of Hexham, 38 
Thurstan, archl)p. of York, 182, 18C, 180 
Tidfrith, bishop of Dunwich, 42 
Tobias, bishop of Rochester, xiii, 29, 32 
Tosty, 8on of tiodwin, 123-141 
Tremerin, bishop of St. David's, 131 
Trumwine, bishop of the Picts, 27 
Tuda, bishop of Lindisfarne, 20-23 
Tumbert, bishop of Hexham, 27 

Ulf, bishop of Dorchester, 121, 123 
ITlfkytel, earl of East Anglia, 95, 99 
Utred, earl of Northumbria, 101, 105 

Valentinian, emperor, 6 
Vespasian, emperor, 4 
Vortigern, king, 7 

Walcher, bishop of Durham, 154 
Waleram, earl of Mellent, 190-196 
Walkelin, bishop of Winchester, 173 
Waltheof, earl of Northumbria, 144, 148, 

152, 153 
Werburh, Geolred's queen, 39 
Westminster Abbey, 136 
Whitgar, lord of Isle of Wight, 9, 10 
Whitherne bishopric, 11 
Wigbert, bishop of Sherborne, 13 

Wighard, bishop-elect, 24 
Wight, Isle of, 7, 9, 23, 63, 04 
Wigthun, bishop of Wiuchester, 45 
Wilfrid, archl)i8hop of York, 20-31 
Wilfrid II., archbishop of York, 28 
Wilfrid, bishop of ^V'orcester, 34 
William, bishop of Durham, 146, 162 
William, bishop of Elmham, 146 
William Curlioil, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 188, 196, 203 
William, earl of Moreton, 73 
William, earl of Normandy, 178 
William Giffard, bishop ot Winchester, 

175, 177, 189, 197 
William I. (the Conqueror), 110, 138-161 
William, prince, son of Henry I., 183, 

185, 186 
William Rufus, 146, 161-174 
Winchester cathedral, 17 
Wini, bishop, 20 
Withlaf, king of Mercia, 44, 45 
Withred, king of Kent, 29-32 
Wulfgar, abbat of Abinirdon, 87-107 
Wulfgar, bishop of Wiltshire, 16 
Wulfhelm, archbishop of Canterbury, 73 
Wulfhere, king of Mercia, 19-26 
Wulfnoth, child, 97, 98 
Wulfred, archbp. of Canterbury, 43-45 
Wulfric, abbat of St. Augustine's, 115 
Wulfstan, archbishop of York, 76-78 
Wulfstan, deacon, dies, 79 
Wulfsy, bishop of Lichfield, 129 
Wulfwy, bishop of Dorchester, 129, 142 
Wulstan, bishop of London, 92 
Wulstan, bishop of Worcester, 162 
Wulstan II., archbishop of York, lOS 

York minster, 15 

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The Anglo-Saxon chronicle; 

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Anglo-Saxon chronicle. 
The Anglo-Saxon chronicle